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dialectic

The method of reasoning that proceeds by question and answer and logical argument, famously illustrated by the dialogues of Socrates (470–399bce) as recorded by Plato (c.428–347bce). ...

dialectic

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David N. Sedley

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
525 words

...of dialectical activity as the greatest human good (Pl. Ap. 38a). In the Hellenistic age the Stoics ( see Stoicism ) treated dialectic as a broad division of philosophy, embracing logic, grammar, definition and division, and the study of sophisms, but excluding rhetoric (Diog. Laert. 7. 41–83). The Stoic sage is said to be the only true dialectician, and to possess ‘dialectical virtue’. The Epicureans rejected the whole of dialectic as superfluous. The Academics, as critics of all doctrinal stances, were leading practitioners of dialectic, yet also...

dialectic

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Peter Singer

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
102 words

... . In ancient Greece, dialectic was a form of reasoning that proceeded by question and answer, used by Plato . In later antiquity and the Middle Ages, the term was often used to mean simply logic, but Kant applied it to arguments showing that principles of science have contradictory aspects. Hegel thought that all logic and world history itself followed a dialectical path, in which internal contradictions were transcended, but gave rise to new contradictions that themselves required resolution. Marx and Engels gave Hegel's idea of dialectic a...

dialectic

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The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
442 words

...of fallacies. The Dialectical school, influential in the later 4th and early 3rd cents. bc , was a Socratic movement which made dialectical virtuosity its focal concern, perhaps influenced by Socrates' description (in Plato's Apology ) of dialectical activity as the greatest human good. In the Hellenistic period the Stoics treated dialectic as a broad division of philosophy, embracing logic, grammar, definition and division, and the study of sophisms. The Stoic sage is said to be the only true dialectician, and to possess ‘dialectical virtue’. The...

dialectic

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A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...dialectic The method of reasoning that proceeds by question and answer and logical argument. Famously illustrated by the dialogues of Socrates ( 470–399 bce ) as recorded by Plato ( c . 428–347 bce ). Teaching of epidemiology and other life, health and social sciences can be conducted by dialectic. ...

Dialectic

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Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... or dialectics (Greek dialektikē tekhnē , ‘the art of argument’) A word commonly used to denote abstract discussion, logic in general or the investigation of truth by analysis, although it has various technical implications in the language of philosophy. Under socrates , dialectic became a search for definition by the systematic use of question and answer, and for plato the method of the highest kind of speculation. For aristotle a dialectic proof was a probable deduction as opposed to a scientific or demonstrative proof. From the time of the ...

dialectic

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
88 words

... Method of argument through conversation and dialogue; based on the philosophy of Socrates , in particular the Dialogues . Hegel went on to argue that ordinary logic , governed by the law of contradiction, is static and lifeless. In the Science of Logic ( 1812–16 ) he claimed to satisfy the need for a dynamic method, whose two moments of thesis and antithesis are cancelled and reconciled in a higher synthesis. Logic was to be dialectical, or a process of resolution by means of conflict of categories. See also dialectical...

dialectic

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A Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
259 words

... (Greek, dialektik ē, the art of conversation or debate) Most fundamentally, the process of reasoning to obtain truth and knowledge on any topic. According to the different views of this process, different conceptions of dialectic emerge. Thus in the Socratic method dialectic is the process of eliciting the truth by means of questions aimed at opening out what is already implicitly known, or at exposing the contradictions and muddles of an opponent’s position. In the middle dialogues of Plato , however, it becomes the total process of...

Dialectic

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Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
3,138 words

... antistrophos to dialectic but as an offshoot ( paraphuēs ) of dialectic (1365a). [ See Logos .] This would seem to argue that dialectic is the more inclusive term and that rhetoric can be understood as a particular instance of dialectic. But Aristotle never says that; instead, he situates rhetoric between dialectic and politics. Rhetoric is thus a distinct type of reasoning. What it shares with dialectic is its modes of inferential proceeding; what distinguishes it from dialectic is the type of propositions with which it works. Dialectic deals with...

dialectic

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The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... 1. The art of formal reasoning, especially the procedure of seeking truth through debate or discussion. 2. The reasoning or logical structure that holds together a continuous argument or exposition. 3. The interplay of contradictory principles or opposed forces, as understood in the European tradition of philosophy influenced by G. W. F. Hegel and including Marx and Engels. Some schematic versions of dialectical philosophy speak of a unification of opposites in which the thesis is opposed by the antithesis but united with it in a higher ...

dialectic

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The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Classical studies
Length:
421 words

...it might signify a particular method, dialectic in general seemed to be the only way to reach the true end of philosophy, knowledge of the Good, and sometimes signified philosophy itself rather than simply a philosophical method. His pupils in the Academy engaged in rigorous dialectical exercises, attacking and defending set theses in formalized argument. This training was a valuable propaedeutic for Aristotle, for whom, unlike Plato, dialectic was related to rhetoric. In Aristotle's logical works, dialectic, though still the means of reaching...

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A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...be conquered, but did so at the price of the monstrous exploitation of the many by the few. Marx saw his dialectical method as a ‘scandal to the bourgeoisie’ because implicit in it is the view that its recognition of the present state of affairs is also a foretelling of its inevitable destruction. In his development of dialectical criticism , Jameson insists that this sense of scandal must be preserved. Further Reading: F. Jameson Valences of the Dialectic ...

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Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
645 words

...of the sciences reflects the contribution of new texts: logic was divided into “demonstrative, dialectical , critical [ temptativa ], sophistical”. Soon after 1150 , John of Salisbury in his Metalogicon divided logic into “demonstrative, probable and sophistical”; the “probable” was subdivided into dialectic and rhetoric , both being concerned with persuading without worrying about the truth of the arguments produced. These various traits of dialectic found a new place in the reconstituted structure of Aristotelian logic and a more specific role...

dialectic

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The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
538 words

... In its usual medieval sense, ‘ dialectic ’ simply means *logic . Logic was studied throughout the MA in the Latin West, *Byzantium , and *Islam . All three cultures continued the syllabus of Aristotelian logic found in the Neoplatonic schools at Athens and Alexandria. The curriculum included study of logic (in Aristotle’s Prior Analytics ), scientific theory (the Posterior Analytics ), informal argument (the Topics ), semantics, propositions and modality ( On Interpretation ), fallacies ( Sophistical Refutations ), and basic *metaphysics (the...

DIALECTIC

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Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
381 words

... De dialectica ; see also PROPOSITION . On all of this, obviously, see LOGOS . 2. Beginning with a negative interpretation of Scholastic usage, according to which dialectic is a rhetorical exercise making use of subtleties in formal logic ( see SOPHISM ), the moderns, from Descartes to Kant, see in dialectic an appearance of logic or a logic of appearance; on “transcendental dialectic,” the logic of transcendental appearance, see ERSCHEINUNG . The positive re-evaluation is related to the Hegelian and Marxist analysis of the processes at work in the...

negative dialectic

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A Dictionary of Sports Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
385 words

... such as sport or popular music. Dialectics is defined by Adorno as ‘the quest to see the new in the old’ ( Against Epistemology , 1956 , English translation 1962 ); but if the structure of domination is as entrenched as he saw it to be in modern consumer capitalism, then there is little or no scope for the identification or articulation of the ‘new’. Therefore, critique and condemnation of the system of domination, its authoritarian character, and its cultural products were essential to Adorno's ‘negative dialectics’. As Susan Buck-Morss puts it: ‘The...

Dialectic of Enlightenment

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A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... of Enlightenment Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer ’s modification of Immanuel Kant ’s thesis that Enlightenment means the end of the intellectual immaturity of humans and the advent of the Age of Reason. Adorno and Horkheimer accept that the Enlightenment did bring about the Age of Reason, but argue that reason is a double-edge sword, or in their words a dialectic , because as humankind exercises its reason and transforms its environment according to its own needs it also allows an ‘instrumental’ way of thinking to dominate every aspect of...

dialectic

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The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

... enquiry into metaphysical contradictions and their solutions. The ancient Greeks used the term to refer to various methods of reasoning and discussion in order to discover the truth. More recently, Kant applied the term to the criticism of the contradictions which arise from supposing knowledge of objects beyond the limits of experience, e.g. the soul. Hegel applied the term to the process of thought by which apparent contradictions (which he termed thesis and antithesis) are seen to be part of a higher truth (synthesis). The word is recorded from late...

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New Oxford Rhyming Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Language reference
Length:
390 words

... • achromatic , acrobatic, Adriatic, aerobatic, anagrammatic, aquatic, aristocratic, aromatic, Asiatic, asthmatic, athematic, attic, autocratic, automatic, axiomatic, bureaucratic, charismatic, chromatic, cinematic, climatic, dalmatic, democratic, diagrammatic, diaphragmatic, diplomatic, dogmatic, dramatic, ecstatic, emblematic, emphatic, enigmatic, epigrammatic, erratic, fanatic, hepatic, hieratic, hydrostatic, hypostatic, idiomatic, idiosyncratic, isochromatic, lymphatic, melodramatic, meritocratic, miasmatic, monochromatic, monocratic,...

dialectic

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Pocket Oxford American Thesaurus (2 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
24 words
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Oxford Paperback Thesaurus (4 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
15 words

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