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Depression

The financial and industrial slump of 1929 and subsequent years, also known as the Great Depression.

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
40 words

... In economics, a time of economic hardship, more severe than a recession . It is commonly measured by a fall in output and a rise in unemployment. The most severe and widespread depression was the Great Depression of the...

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A Dictionary of Geography (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2023

... An area of low pressure (roughly, below 1 000 mb); see mid-latitude depression . Depression tracks are influenced by the courses of jet streams , energy sources—such as warm seas—and mountain...

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A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

... A midlatitude frontal cyclone , often associated with overcast skies and persistent...

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A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

..., Beck Depression Inventory , Borna disease virus , cognitive therapy , depressive episode , depressive mood , depressive realism , dysthymia ( 1 ) , dysthymic disorder , endogenous depression , exogenous depression , Hamilton Depression Rating Scale , inositol , involutional depression , involutional psychosis , irritable male syndrome , learned helplessness , major depressive disorder , masked depression , melancholia , mhpg , neurotic depression , nervous breakdown , noradrenalin , postpartum blues , postpartum depression , ...

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
50 words

... Disorder characterized by feelings of guilt, failure, worthlessness or rejection. Frequently a response to a difficult life-situation, depression leads to low self-esteem, self-recrimination and obsessive thoughts. Insomnia, loss of appetite and lethargy are often present, and in severe cases there is a risk of suicide. See also manic ...

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A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... An enclosed area of low pressure revealed by the pattern of pressure distribution. Depressions are also described as cyclones or cyclonic systems, and have a characteristic pattern of wind circulation (anticlockwise around low-pressure areas in the northern hemisphere). Mid-latitude depressions are associated with the convergence of polar and tropical air masses along a frontal zone: this commonly becomes deformed, and each air mass in turn advances over parts near (especially south of) the depression path, bringing first a warm front and then a...

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Food and Fitness: A Dictionary of Diet and Exercise (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

... A melancholy mood; a feeling of hopelessness or an attitude of dejection. Depression varies from mild forms, which most people experience, to very severe clinical forms that require expert medical treatment. Although depression can affect the motivation to exercise, it is generally agreed that aerobic activity can protect against and relieve depression. Aerobic exercise sustained for at least 30 minutes, five times a week, can have remarkable anti-depressant effects. The reason is unclear, but may be linked to the production of endorphins during...

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A Dictionary of Finance and Banking (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... ( slump ) An extended or severe period of recession . Depressions occur infrequently. The most recent Great Depression occurred in the 1930s; prior to that they occurred in the periods 1873–96 , 1844–51 , and 1810–17 . Depressions are usually associated with falling prices ( see deflation ) and large-scale involuntary unemployment. They are often preceded by major financial crashes, e.g. the Wall Street crash of 1929...

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A Dictionary of Geology and Earth Sciences (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

... 1. Enclosed area of low pressure revealed by the pattern of pressure distribution. Depressions are also described as cyclones, or cyclonic systems, and have a characteristic pattern of wind circulation (anticlockwise around low pressure areas in the northern hemisphere). Mid-latitude depressions are associated with the convergence of polar and tropical air masses along a frontal zone: this commonly becomes deformed, and each air mass in turn advances over parts near (especially south of) the depression path, bringing first a warm and then a cold...

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A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
278 words

...of types of depression varies. In the post-war period it has been common to distinguish reactive and endogenous depression. With reactive depression—a neurosis —there is an identifiable precipitant, but the response is exaggerated. With endogenous depression—a psychosis —there is not; instead the illness appears to arise from within. Under the heading of ‘Affective Disorders’, the APA Manual of Mental Disorders distinguishes bi-polar (manic depression) and unipolar disorders (depression). The various types of depression are now the most frequently...

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A Dictionary of Business and Management (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
70 words

... ( slump ) An extended or severe period of recession . Depressions occur infrequently. The most recent Great Depression occurred in the 1930s; prior to that they occurred in the periods 1873–96 , 1844–51 , and 1810–17 . Depressions are usually associated with falling prices ( see deflation ) and large-scale involuntary unemployment. They are often preceded by major financial crashes, e.g. the Wall Street crash of 1929 . See also business cycle...

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A Dictionary of Nursing (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
120 words

...for depression is usually with antidepressant drugs, cognitive behavioural therapy, and/or psychotherapy. See also postnatal (depression) . —depressive adj. https://www.rcpsych.ac.uk/mental-health/problems-disorders/depression Explanation of depression, including a short video, from the Royal College of...

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A Dictionary of Weather (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2023
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography
Length:
294 words
Illustration(s):
1

... thermal lows . Tropical depressions are weak early or late stages in the evolution of (non-frontal) tropical cyclones . A typical, middle-latitude depression goes through three major stages during its lifetime. The first is a wave on the Polar Front known as a wave depression. This subsequently develops a distinct cold front , warm front , and warm sector , becoming a warm-sector depression , during which time it normally deepens and its motion accelerates. In the final stage, the occluded depression , the cold front overtakes the warm front,...

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A Dictionary of Dentistry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Medicine and health, Dentistry
Length:
49 words

...depression n. 1. A mental state characterized by a pessimistic sense of inadequacy and a despondent lack of activity. 2. A pitted area on an anatomical structure such as a tooth. Mandibular depression is the lowering of the mandible caused by a rotational movement of the temporomandibular joint...

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Mathematics (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Science and technology, Mathematics and Computer Science
Length:
47 words
Illustration(s):
1

...depression The acute angle between the horizontal and a given line ( see inclination ) measured positively in the direction of the downwards vertical. θ ‎ is the angle of depression of the boat from the top of the cliff. Sometimes also known as the angle of declination. ...

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A Dictionary of Sports Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
57 words

... In relation to the economy, a sustained downturn in consumer demand and spending, with associated reduction in production. When this downturn generates increasing unemployment , consumer markets shrink, though this may stimulate revived or new forms of associational activity or public sporting culture, as in the Great Depression of the 1930s. See also knur-and-spell ; recession ; Seabiscuit...

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
26 words

... In meteorology, a region of low atmospheric pressure with the lowest pressure at the centre. It usually brings unsettled or stormy weather. See also ...

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A Dictionary of Social Work and Social Care (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...disorder (manic depression), post-natal depression, and clinical or major depression. However, symptoms of depression can be experienced by an individual at any age in the absence of a diagnosis of serious psychiatric disorder. There are three clinical categories which indicate levels of severity and which tend to guide intervention: mild, moderate, or severe. Mild depression may last for a few days or weeks, and if necessary can be treated by the individual’s general practitioner with anti-depressant medication. Moderate depression may require...

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Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
88 words

... Economic growth is subject to disturbances and cyclical episodes of rapid and slower (or declining) growth—termed business cycle s. While diminished and even negative growth often reflect the contractionary phase of such business cycles, particularly severe and longer periods of adversity are generally termed depressions . The extended downturn of 1873–1896 , the Great Depression of the 1930s, and, for some economists, the downturn following the oil shocks of 1973 belong in this category. Shorter severe periods are often called “panics,” and less...

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The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science & Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Medicine and health
Length:
133 words

... 1 Movement of the shoulder girdle or another body part downwards (i.e. in an inferior direction). Compare elevation . 2 A melancholy mood; a feeling of hopelessness, or an attitude of dejection. Depression can adversely affect the motivation to train and compete. In serious cases, depression is a symptom of mental illness. Exercise is often used in the treatment of mild depression and anxiety. Research has shown that aerobic exercise sustained for at least 30 min, five times a week can have anti-depressant effects, and the exercise produces...

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