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democratization of content

democratization of content   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
65 words

... of content The production , editing , personalization, and distribution of digital media content by ordinary users , rather than by the traditional content providers in the established media industries . This is facilitated by the increasing availability and decreasing costs of new media tools. See also blog ; crowdsourcing ; disintermediation ; mashup ; participatory culture ; social media ; user-generated content ; Web 2.0 . ...

20c The History of the Book in Britain from 1914

20c The History of the Book in Britain from 1914   Reference library

Claire Squires

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
4,043 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...19 th century about the subversive dangers of a newly literate audience developed in the 20 th century into fears about the deterioration of literary quality in a democratized marketplace. The ambivalence of the book trade, caught between the demands of capitalism and those of culture, would continue to cause consternation throughout the 20 th century. Geoffrey *Faber , publisher of high-modernist authors including Eliot and Pound at his eponymous company, articulated his disdain for a market-focused breed of publishers whom he perceived to be publishing...

35 The Slavonic Book in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus

35 The Slavonic Book in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus   Reference library

Christine Thomas

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,074 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...and selective relaxation of censorship resulted in some liberalization of literature, and diversification in the content of published works. In Russia, a degree of polemical debate appeared in the literary journals, both hard-line (notably Oktiabr’ (October) and liberal. Among the latter, Novyi mir (New World), edited by Aleksandr Tvardovskii, was in the forefront, publishing Solzhenitsyn’s * One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich . An August 1963 decree initiated a radical reorganization of publishing, printing, and the book trade; by 1964 , these had...

On the Future of Women and Politics in the Arab World

On the Future of Women and Politics in the Arab World   Reference library

Heba Raouf Ezzat

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
5,961 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...corruption due to the negative image of politicians in their respective societies. 4 Hence the process of empowering women politically has to go hand in hand with democratization and the dis-empowerment of the authoritarian regimes of the region. This should start by re-negotiating the power allocated to the state. It necessitates a re-formation of the conceptual tools starting from the definition of power to a more profound investigation of the transformation of the political at large. In many Arab countries and due to the political stagnation women...

Additions to Daniel

Additions to Daniel   Reference library

George J. Brooke and George J. Brooke

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
7,923 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Ps 115 ), but also the actual destruction of the idols is depicted (cf. Jub 12:12–13 ). Its similarity to Dan 6 suggests that the den episode may have originated as an independent tradition. D. Date and Place of Composition. 1. About 100 bce , the terminus ante quem , all three additions were incorporated into the Greek text of Daniel; determining actual dates of composition is much more difficult. Most scholars suppose that the Prayer of Azariah and the Song of the Three Jews are so typical in form and content that they are virtually impossible to date...

1 Chronicles

1 Chronicles   Reference library

H. P. Mathys, H. P. Mathys, and H. P. Mathys

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
48,015 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in the plot are named, lending it a degree of tangibility. With the exception of Elishaphat, all the names appear in the lists of priests and Levites in Ezra, Nehemiah, and Chronicles, vv. 4–5 a , neither these orders nor those in the source are entirely clear, since routine tasks that the author of Kings (and presumably the reader) knew well enough are not reported. The Chronicler follows certain guidelines laid down by Kings, describing the guards and the division of forces into three parts. The rest of the content is completely altered, so that the royal...

Isaiah

Isaiah   Reference library

R. Coggins and R. Coggins

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
64,792 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...to the whole community ( Eissfeldt 1962 ). This ‘democratization’ ( Williamson 1994 : 112 ) is a characteristic theme of Isaiah, with its concern for the community, but it does not necessarily exclude hopes centred in the Davidic line as well. If we are to read the book as a whole we shall need to see this in the light of 9:2–7 . In the present context, however, the main stress is the summons to the community to fulfil a role comparable with that which God had allotted to David. ( 55:6–9 ) The basic notion of ‘seeking’ and ‘calling upon’ YHWH implied engaging...

Psalms

Psalms   Reference library

C. S. Rodd and C. S. Rodd

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
62,266 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...that it is corporate, the ‘I’ being either a representative of the nation or symbolizing it. Support can be found for each of these interpretations, but this only reinforces the uncertainty. For example, the call to the foreign kings fits a royal psalm, but might equally be a late ‘democratizingof the style when it was taken over by individuals. In the same way ‘lowly’ in v. 6 can be understood as a mark of an ordinary Jewish worshipper, but kings, both within Israel and in other countries of the ancient Middle East, described themselves as poor and...

celebrity

celebrity  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A phenomenon in which exceptional attributes—such as glamour, sustained fame, beauty, talent—are recognized and associated with an individual, whose cultural profile is then often reproduced not ...
Luther v. Borden

Luther v. Borden  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
7 How. (48 U.S.) 1 (1849), argued 24–28 Jan. 1848, decided 3 Jan. 1849 by vote of 8 to 1; Taney for the Court, Woodbury concurring in part and dissenting in part. The Constitution provides that the ...
crowdsourcing

crowdsourcing   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
46 words

...+ outsourcing ] Inviting the general public to contribute materials (such as ideas, stories, photographs , and video clips) to a project (particularly in journalism , advertising , and publishing). See also citizen journalism ; democratization of content ; feedback ; participatory culture ; tweet ; user-generated content . ...

media content

media content   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
97 words

...content See also content ; media logic . 1. What is represented, and how it is represented, within programmes , advertising , and other media forms , which is subject to regulation ( see also censorship ; representation ). As an area of academic study, this may be the subject of content analysis or other forms of textual analysis . 2. Material produced for use in the mass media or online media (such as journalistic articles, photographs , games , graphics, and video); see also content provider ; democratization of content ; ...

user-generated content

user-generated content   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
107 words

...content ( UGC , user-created content , UCC ) See also crowdsourcing ; digital commons ; produser ; prosumer ; prosumption ; social media ; wisdom of crowds . 1. Online material that is either originated or appropriated and refashioned by amateur producers and accessible to general users of the internet . See also bricolage ; content co-curation ; content sharing ; democratization of content ; digital labour ; knowledge sharing ; mashup . 2. Broadly, any material produced by the audience or users of a medium :...

blog

blog   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
108 words

...often permitting readers to add comments. Some are like personal diaries and some focus on a particular topic (such as political blogs). The more serious blogs are a form of citizen journalism . See also demassified media ; democratization of content ; digital journalism ; disintermediation ; user-generated content ; vlog . 2. v. The act of sharing content online in this form ( blogging ). ...

social media

social media   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
164 words

...communication ; networked publics ; online sociality ; participatory media ; sharing ; user-generated content ; compare hybrid media ; owned media ; social media platform ; social technologies ; traditional media . 3. ( social media content ) The messages and resources created and shared within social networking and content-sharing websites. See also content ; democratization of content ; echo chamber ; user-generated content . ...

disintermediation

disintermediation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
116 words

...and that established media industries will be undermined. See also content sharing ; distributed network ; democratization of content ; distribution network ; gatekeeping ; mass self-communication ; mediation ; networked communication ; networked public sphere ; participatory culture ; user-generated content ; Web 2.0 . ...

participatory culture

participatory culture   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
161 words

...prosumer ; prosumption . Before the era of Web 2.0 this was particularly associated with a global network of fans of popular culture (e.g. for TV shows such as Star Trek ), but it has subsequently also become associated with internet technologies such as YouTube which enable users to appropriate and refashion media content . See also active audience theory ; audience participation ; bricolage ; democratization of content ; fandom ; fan fiction ; mashup ; textual poaching ; user-generated content . https://www.macfound.org/media/article...

Democratization and Conflict

Democratization and Conflict   Reference library

Ömer Faruk Örsün, Reşat Bayer, and Michael Bernhard

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Empirical International Relations Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
9,530 words
Illustration(s):
2

... Journal of Conflict Resolution , 59 (6), 984–1016. Hippler, J. (2008). Democratization after civil wars—Key problems and experiences. Democratisation , 15 (3), 550–569. Huntington, S. P. (1968). Political order in changing societies . New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Jarstad, A. K. , & Sisk, T. D. (2008). From war to democracy: Dilemmas of peacebuilding . Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. Joshi, M. (2010). Post-civil war democratization: Promotion of democracy in post-civil war states, 1946–2005. Democratization , 17 (5),...

Web 2.0

Web 2.0   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
138 words

...applications that supported user-generated content . The term was first used in 1999 and gained popularity as a marketing response to the ‘dot-com’ crash of 2000–02. It is intended to be seen in contrast to a selective framing of the web of the 1990s primarily as a source of information delivered through the browser, perpetuating the model of production , consumption , and information flow associated with mainstream media. See also blog ; convergence culture ; democratization of content ; disaggregation ; disintermediation ; mashup ;...

Fukuzawa, Ichiro

Fukuzawa, Ichiro (1898)   Reference library

Benezit Dictionary of Asian Artists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...exhibition in 1940 , and helped to make Surrealism accepted in Japan. In 1941 , at the time of the Berlin-Rome-Tokyo axis, the Surrealists were likened to Communists and Fuzukawa was sent to prison. He was not released until after the war. When he resumed painting, he favoured social criticism in his works, metaphorically attacking the different states of disorder that followed the defeat of a caste society and the emerging middle-class desire for democratisation and modernisation. In 1951 , he was the first Japanese painter since the war to take part in...

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