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democratic socialism

In general, a label for any person or group who advocates the pursuit of socialism by democratic means. Used especially by parliamentary socialists who put parliamentarism ahead of ...

democratic socialism

democratic socialism   Quick reference

Howard Sargeant

Dictionary Plus Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
79 words

...democratic socialism A political ideology. Strictly speaking, democratic socialism advocates social ownership of the means of production and is therefore committed to the overthrow of capitalism as an economic model, while maintaining a commitment to political democracy; this latter commitment distinguishes it from authoritarian models of centralized socialism, such as the Soviet model. Informally, the term is often used synonymously with social democracy , which seeks not to overthrow capitalism but to reform it using existing democratic institutions....

democratic socialism

democratic socialism   Quick reference

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
67 words

... socialism In general, a label for any person or group who advocates the pursuit of socialism by democratic means. Used especially by parliamentary socialists who put parliamentarism ahead of socialism, and therefore oppose revolutionary action against democratically elected governments. Less ambiguous than social democracy , which has had, historically, the opposite meanings of (1) factions of Marxism, and (2) groupings on the right of socialist...

democratic socialism

democratic socialism   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
88 words

... socialism Political movement that arose in late 19th- and early 20th-century Europe, out of the evolutionary wing of the Second Communist International . Broadly speaking, democratic socialism is committed to the principles of: equality and social justice, parliamentary government, redistribution of wealth (through progressive taxation) and social protection. Democratic socialist parties have held power in most Western European countries, as well as Australasia, Canada and some Latin American countries. After the collapse of Soviet communism in the...

democratic socialism

democratic socialism   Reference library

Allen Mills

The Oxford Companion to Canadian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
363 words

... socialism . An idea that emerged in the late 19th century, democratic socialism emphasized that legitimate socialism must be attained through gradual, peaceful, and consensual methods. Canada's several socialisms all spoke of democracy, but this did not make them all democratic socialism. This type of socialism emphasizes parliamentary methods, and was mainly defined in contradistinction to Marxist ideas of change. Marxism, preaching the revolutionary transformation of capitalism, had a small but important following before the First World War. Early...

Homosexuality Under Socialism in the German Democratic Republic

Homosexuality Under Socialism in the German Democratic Republic   Reference library

Josh W. Armstrong

The Oxford Encyclopedia of LGBT Politics and Policy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
11,023 words

...Under Socialism in the German Democratic Republic Terminology Since this article deals explicitly with the history of same-sex-desiring people in the German Democratic Republic (GDR), the term “gay” is used throughout. This is in the interest of specificity and exactitude. While the modern usage of “queer” carries a connotation of inclusivity—a positive gesture—it is not a concept that would have been used by East Germans. Furthermore, while of course there were people in the GDR who in the early 21st century can be recognized as queer, this...

democratic socialism

democratic socialism  

In general, a label for any person or group who advocates the pursuit of socialism by democratic means. Used especially by parliamentary socialists who put parliamentarism ahead of socialism, and ...
The Second Message of Islam

The Second Message of Islam   Reference library

Mahmoud Mohamed Taha

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
10,854 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...will be discussed in our book Islam Is Democratic and Socialist . Just as socialism is the product of the struggle between the “haves” and the “have nots” in the material sphere, democracy is the product of the struggle between those same extremes in the political sphere. Its purpose is the sharing of power. Democracy parallels socialism; they are as two wings of society. In the same way that a bird does not fly with one wing, so does society need the two wings of democracy and socialism. Socialism, which requires greater social awareness,...

Utopianism

Utopianism   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,929 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...term ‘utopian socialism’, developed later in the writings of Marx and Engels , was used to distinguish their ‘scientific socialism’ from, for instance, *Saint-Simonianism in France and Owenism in Britain. The distinction was primarily based on the faith such movements showed in public opinion as a means of changing society. The appeal to all classes, on the basis of reason and justice, appeared historically naïve to Marx and Engels who argued that only class struggle, derived from a ‘scientific’ theory of history, could bring about socialism in the late...

Labour History

Labour History   Quick reference

John L. Halstead

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,401 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in the formation of the Labour Representation Committee in 1900 . Family historians may prefer to approach the history of one of these bodies, the Social Democratic Federation, formed in 1883 , through biography (see Chushichi Tsuzuki, H. M. Hyndman and British Socialism ( 1961 ). The Webbs were involved in its more important parallel foundation, the Fabian Society (see A. M. McBriar , Fabian Socialism and English Politics 1884–1918 (1966). The Independent Labour Party ( ILP ), founded in 1893 at Bradford, was even more important. This socialist...

The New Renaissance

The New Renaissance   Reference library

Hasan Al-Bannā

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
2,333 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...until the world had lost in a second war thousands of men, the flower of her youth, and masses of wealth and material. The star of socialism and Communism, symbol of success and victory, shone with an increasing brilliance; Soviet Russia was at the head of the collectivist camp. She launched her message and, in the eyes of the world, demonstrated a system which had been modified several times in thirty years. The democratic powers—or, to use a more precise expression, the colonialist powers, the old ones worn out, the new ones full of greed—took up a...

The Arab World and the Muslims Faced with Their Contradictions

The Arab World and the Muslims Faced with Their Contradictions   Reference library

Tariq Ramadan

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
2,903 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the analysis of this attitude. In The Arab World The colonial era naturally saw the birth of numerous resistance movements who opposed the illegitimate foreign presence: some proclaimed exclusively nationalist ideals, others added or preferred a link with internationalism, socialism or communism while others were driven by Islam. The daily and tangible character of the domination meant the terms and objectives of any resistance became explicit: in one way or another, in Algeria, Tunisia, Egypt or in Syria, political freedom was sought. During the last 50...

Participation in Non-Islamic Government

Participation in Non-Islamic Government   Reference library

Rachid Ghannouchi

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
4,498 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and wait, but this too contradicts the very essence of the Islamic message, which encourages the faithful to be positive, active and involved. The best option for such minorities is to enter into alliances with secular democratic groups. They can then work towards the establishment of a secular democratic government which will respect human rights, ensuring security and freedom of expression and belief—essential requirements of mankind that Islam has come to fulfill. The accomplishment of such important values in any society will...

Religion and Liberty

Religion and Liberty   Reference library

Mehdi Bazargan

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
8,567 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... The speaker went on to propose that Western democracy and individual liberties, their service to human civilization and progress notwithstanding, have been incapable of responding to human needs, economic problems, and social inequities. Hence the advent of socialism, communism, and existentialism in the wake of nationalism and liberalism, and the indefatigable search for freedom and justice. Religious Scholars 7 and Freedom Let us return now...

Policing

Policing   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,788 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... ( 1835 ) that it was precisely the democratic nature of American society which led to it pioneering the repressive new penitentiary *prison . Just as he had argued that the French Revolution resulted in the institution of tyranny in the form of administrative government, de Tocqueville argued with reference to America that a society with so much freedom and so few traditional social bonds felt the need for strong new forms of discipline to maintain order. Britain in the Romantic age was certainly no democratic society, but it was a society dramatically...

The Necessity of Renewing Islamic Thought and Reinvigorating Religious Understanding

The Necessity of Renewing Islamic Thought and Reinvigorating Religious Understanding   Reference library

Nurcholish Madjid

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
7,874 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...to modern Western ideologies such as democracy, socialism, communism and others. These ideologies are often totalitarian in character, in the sense that they are comprehensive in scope and cover every sphere of life in detail, particularly the political, social, economic, and cultural spheres, and others besides. The apology in relation to modern ideologies gave rise to an ideological-political understanding of Islam which then led to the ideal of an “Islamic state” just as there existed democratic states, socialist states, communist states, and so...

Liberation Theology: Europe

Liberation Theology: Europe   Reference library

Luise Schottroff and John Rogerson

The Oxford Illustrated History of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
5,737 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...and The Counter-Gospel of Anatole (1975, 1979). The materialist readings of the Bible were carried on above all by the new groups that came into existence under the title ‘Christians for Socialism’. This movement was founded, so far as Europe was concerned, in Bologna, Lyons, and Arnhem in Holland in 1973 in deliberate imitation of the ‘Christians for Socialism’ movement which was formed in 1970 during the elections in Chile and which soon had groups in the whole of Latin America. Books and lectures by the French Protestant Georges Casalis and the...

The Crisis of the Arab Intellectual: Traditionalism or Historicism?

The Crisis of the Arab Intellectual: Traditionalism or Historicism?   Reference library

Laroui Abdallah

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
3,240 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...that have occurred in the life of humanity. In the modern period humanity has experienced a religious reform, a democratic revolution, an industrial revolution. Each of these has expressed, in a particular domain, the evolution of society as a whole; from them derive breaks in thought (also called revolutions)—scientific, rationalist, historicist—that have given rise to ideologies whose most complete expressions were liberalism and Marxist socialism. The more a society lags behind other societies, the more are the goals of revolution diversified and deepened; the...

Land

Land   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,951 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and to the rise of socialist and *utopian [9] communitarianism. Romanticism, then, in this context is a cultural theatre of contest between the rhetorics of traditional and capitalist society earlier in the eighteenth century, and between those of liberalism and socialism later in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The sublime of Romanticism presents an absolute distance between personal identity and nature; the communitarian strain in Romanticism demonstrates the inextricability of the human and the natural terrain. So it is, then,...

Islam and Humanism

Islam and Humanism   Reference library

Mamadiou Dia

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
6,144 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the relative absence of religious strife in Senegal, where the population is more than four-fifths Muslim. Nonetheless, Dia broke with Senghor in 1962 and was jailed for a dozen years. During his incarceration, Dia turned from politics to religion, integrating his fervent socialism into a theory of “Islamic humanism.” 1 In a series of books on Islam published after his release from prison, Dia argues that interpretation of Islam must respond positively to the modern world, as Christianity has. Dia refers frequently to recent French theology for...

24 The History of the Book in Germany

24 The History of the Book in Germany   Reference library

John L. Flood

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,164 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...is a world leader in the fields of science, medicine, economics, engineering, architecture, construction, and transport. One of the most obvious changes in the appearance of German books since the middle of the 20 th century, the abandoning of Fraktur, is a legacy of National Socialism. German texts had customarily been printed in gothic types since the 16 th century, partly rejecting foreign (especially Italian) influence, partly from national pride, and partly from Lutheran rejection of Roman Catholicism. In 1794 the Berlin publisher Nicolai described...

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