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Overview

deduction

The form of reasoning characteristic of logic and mathematics in which a conclusion is inferred from a set of premises that logically imply it. The term also denotes a conclusion drawn by ...

Deduction

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A Dictionary of Epidemiology (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...Deduction Reasoned argument proceeding from the general to the particular. ...

deduction

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The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science & Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007

... A logical method of reasoning from generalizations to specific relations or facts. Compare induction...

deduction

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A Dictionary of Computer Science (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

... A formal method of logical inference . Deduction is the process of applying one or more inference rules to a given set of facts (known as axioms ) and inferring new facts. Unlike the other methods of inference, abduction and induction , deduction produces logically sound results, i.e. involves no...

deduction

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The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
28 words

... In logic, the process of reasoning whereby a conclusion is reached from an already known or accepted premiss. The opposite process is termed ‘ induction...

deduction

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Mathematics (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021

...deduction The process of reasoning from axioms , premises, or assumptions, using accepted logical steps. The term is also used to refer to the outcome of such a reasoning...

deduction

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A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
76 words

... A logical thought process in which statements about unknown or unobservable causes or effects are made on the basis of known facts, processes, or principles. Formally its structure is as follows: if A and B then C. Deduction has been formally identified with one of two scientific methods (the other is based on induction ). In practice, deduction is a routine and often unformalized operation that is part of most geographical and non-geographical...

deduction

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A Dictionary of Law Enforcement (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Law
Length:
137 words

... (in employment law) Sum deducted from an employee 's wages. The Employment Rights Act 1996 provides strict rules on what can be deducted from wages. Permitted deductions include those for income tax, national insurance, and pension contributions (for employees who have agreed to be part of an employer 's pension scheme). Deductions are also allowed when there has been an overpayment of wages or expenses in the past, when there has been a strike and wages are withheld, or when there is a court order, such as an order from the Child Support Agency or...

deduction

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A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
43 words

... ( deductive reasoning ) 1. A process of reasoning that moves from the general to the particular (the opposite of induction ). Compare abduction . 2. A form of logic in which, if the premises are true, then its conclusion is true. ...

deduction

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A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
79 words

... ( deductive ) The use of logical rules to arrive at a set of premises from which certain conclusions must follow. Deduction begins with theory , moves to hypotheses derived from the theory, and then tests hypotheses via prediction and observations. This approach to testing and theory is often referred to as the hypothetico-deductive method, and since it emphasizes hypotheses, prediction, and testing, is sometimes held to be the method par excellence of science. See also induction...

deduction

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A Dictionary of Sports Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
76 words

... The analytical process on the basis of which a general proposition leads to the facts, or a hypothesis (derived from previous evidence and theory) provides the foundation for the exploration of particular cases or facts. Deduction is the form of reasoning and logical method underpinning the bulk of research in sport and exercise science, in which the planned laboratory experiment or the field test is designed to elicit detailed results on specific functions or...

deduction

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A Dictionary of Logic

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
53 words

... 1. An argument where each of its steps is deductively valid; that is, where if the premisses are true so must the conclusion be. 2. In a Hilbert-style calculus , a sequence of sentences such that each is an axiom or follows from earlier members of the sequence by a rule of...

deduction

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Ruth Barcan Marcus

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
154 words

... . A species of argument or inference where from a given set of premisses the conclusion must follow. For example, from the premisses P 1 , P 2 the conclusion P 1 and P 2 is deducible. The set consisting of the premisses and the negation of the conclusion is inconsistent. An argument advanced as deductive where the foregoing fails is invalid. If deducibility holds between a conclusion and premisses, the conclusion is also described as a logical consequence of the premisses. In the standard propositional calculus , it is provable that if Q ...

deduction

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
67 words

... Process of reasoning which moves from the general to the particular. E.g. from the general proposition that all trees have leaves and the further proposition that oaks are trees one may draw the deductive inference that oaks have leaves. Opposed to induction; see also hypothetico-deductive method . In deductive reasoning the conclusion follows logically: compare in this respect both induction and abduction ( 2 )...

deduction

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A Dictionary of Construction, Surveying and Civil Engineering (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

... 1. The action of removing or subtracting one thing from something else. 2. Coming to or reaching a conclusion or theory based on the known facts, or reaching a conclusion in respect of how a prior decision or outcome was reached. If used in construction research, it is based on scientific principles, the use of theory to direct theory, and research with the use data to conform. Quantitative data are used to explain and explore a causal...

deduction

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A Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
67 words

... A process of reasoning in which a conclusion is drawn from a set of premises . Usually confined to cases in which the conclusion is supposed to follow from the premises, i.e. the inference is logically valid . See also logical calculus , model theory , proof theory . In spite of his own claims, Sherlock Holmes’s methods were not typically deductive, but rather exercises of abduction...

deduction

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A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... n. The form of reasoning characteristic of logic and mathematics in which a conclusion is inferred from a set of premises that logically imply it. The term also denotes a conclusion drawn by this process. See also deductive reasoning , inference , logic . Compare induction ( 1 , 2 ) . deduce vb . deductive adj . [From Latin deducere to lead away or deduce, from de - from + ducere to lead + - ion indicating an action, process, or...

deduction

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A Dictionary of Social Research Methods

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
109 words

...deduction A process of reasoning from established premises. In statistical applications, a hypothesis is proposed based upon these premises and then a research methodology is designed to test the hypothesis. A deductive approach is, therefore, concerned with arriving at conclusions from premises or propositions. For example, the researcher may propose that a causal relationship exists between two observed phenomena. A deductive research design would test this relationship through implementation of a relevant methodology. This allows a move from general premises...

deduction

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Mary Elizabeth Tiles

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,235 words
Illustration(s):
1

... . In the more general sense any process of reasoning by means of which one draws conclusions from principles or information already known. Thus Isaac Newton talks of making deductions from his experiments with prisms, and G. K. Chesterton's Father Brown, after visiting the scene of the crime, deduces that Flambeau was responsible. But within logic and philosophy deduction is contrasted with induction . Frequently the contrast is made by use of a directional metaphor: by induction one moves from particular to general and from the less general to the...

deduction

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Australian Law Dictionary (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Law
Length:
375 words

...deduction (Middle French déduction also Latin deductio , from deducere (to infer logically, derive, draw a conclusion from something already known: de - down + ducere , to lead) (1) In arithmetic, the action of deducting or taking away from a sum or amount; subtraction or abatement; by extension, a deduction is also that amount which is deducted . Applies across all areas where numerical quantification is required (e.g. a rate adjustment ). For purposes of assessment of income tax , a general deduction provision ( Income Tax Assessment Act...

deduction theorem

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A Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
41 words

... theorem The theorem provable about some logical systems, that if a conclusion C can be proved from a set of premises A 1 …A n , then there is a proof of A n → C from A 1 …A n–1...

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