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death-drive

The tendency inherent in all organic things to return to an inorganic state. The concept is part of a dualism developed late in Sigmund Freud's career consisting of two forces the ...

death-drive

death-drive   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...-drive ( Todestrieb ) The tendency inherent in all organic things to return to an inorganic state. The concept is part of a dualism developed late in Sigmund Freud ’s career consisting of two forces the life-drive ( Lebenstrieb ) and the death-drive, also known as Eros and Thanatos after the Greek Gods for love and death respectively, which exist in a state of equilibrium (for this reason Freud sometimes referred to it as the ‘Nirvana principle’). According to Freud, the death-drive manifests in the psyche as a tendency toward self-destruction, or...

death-drive

death-drive  

The tendency inherent in all organic things to return to an inorganic state. The concept is part of a dualism developed late in Sigmund Freud's career consisting of two forces the life-drive ...
Antony and Cleopatra

Antony and Cleopatra   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,330 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...orders his army to disperse. When Cleopatra appears he drives her away with threats, claiming she has betrayed him to Caesar, and he resolves to kill both her and himself. 4.14 As Cleopatra and her attendants retreat to her monument, she instructs the eunuch Mardian to tell Antony she has committed suicide and to report his reaction. 4.15 Antony is telling Eros all is lost when Mardian brings his message. Antony instructs Eros to help him unarm and, reconciled to Cleopatra, whom he longs to join in death, orders Eros to kill him with his own sword. Eros,...

Timon of Athens

Timon of Athens   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,245 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...extreme misanthropy is merely the inverse of his former pride. After Timon finally drives Apemantus away, three thieves arrive, to whom Timon gives gold in order to sponsor their profession, but his sermon and his money in fact convert them to a love of peace. When Flavius arrives, however, Timon is moved by his fidelity, though he nonetheless insists that he stay away in future. 5.1 The Poet and the Painter also come in the hopes of obtaining gold from Timon: he drives them away with blows and curses. 5.2 Flavius brings two senators to Timon’s cave, who...

Reforming Islam and Islamic Law

Reforming Islam and Islamic Law   Reference library

Muhammad Sa‘id Al-‘Ashmawi

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
2,896 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...only in certain jobs, such as teaching girls, caring for women, and the like. A woman has no right to wear what she wants. She must don the veil or the chadoor (in Iran), and if she does not, she could be considered a heretic, which is punishable by death (as was declared in Iran). A woman has no right to drive a car, and if she does, she will be considered a rebel against the community, endangering herself and her husband, which happened in Saudi Arabia. The liberal, intellectual, enlightened movement has another approach and totally different concepts and ideas...

Henry VI Part 1

Henry VI Part 1   Reference library

Randall Martin and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,505 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Talbot and the English have surveyed the French defences. Salisbury is mortally wounded. 1.5–6 Joan disarms Talbot and captures Orléans. The victorious French celebrate her victory on the city walls. 2.1 Using scaling-ladders, Talbot, Bedford, and Burgundy assault Orléans and drive out the French. 2.2–3 Salisbury’s funeral. The Countess of Auvergne invites Talbot to visit her castle, where she tries to take him prisoner, but he secretly forearms himself with a troop of soldiers. 2.4 In the Temple Garden, Richard Plantagenet, Somerset, and their supporters...

Ecclesiastes

Ecclesiastes   Reference library

Stuart Weeks and Stuart Weeks

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
7,053 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...is here justified as something pre-ordained by God. ( 9:10 ) refers to Sheol, the underworld, to which all humans were believed to descend after death. Biblical descriptions envisage it as a place of weakness (e.g. Isa 14:9–11 ), and as a leveller of the dead ( Ezek 32:17–31 ). The shades who dwell there are impotent, miserable creatures. Unpredictability and Injustice ( 9:11–16 ) ( 9:11–12 ) After stressing death's lack of discrimination, Qoheleth turns briefly to its unpredictability. Those who should win or gain things have no control over them, but are at...

Antiquarianism (Popular)

Antiquarianism (Popular)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,164 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...plainly sought to revise Warton's accepting notion of the medieval heritage. His first major publication was his edition of the Dance of Death ( 1794 ), based on an edition of sixteenth-century illustrations wrongly attributed to Holbein and engraved in the seventeenth century by Hollar . In this version of the popular late medieval theme, thirty characters, most of them wealthy, many titled, are snatched away by Death; the message is levelling, to humble the proud. In 1794 Douce's prefatory essay, modified in the much-altered book with the same title of...

Troilus and Cressida

Troilus and Cressida   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,065 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...learning Achilles has killed Hector, are convinced their ultimate victory is inevitable. 5.11 Troilus brings Paris, Aeneas, and others the news of Hector’s death, consoled only by thoughts of vengeance. (In the quarto he is then accosted by Pandarus, whom he shuns, and Pandarus speaks an epilogue, lamenting how bawds are reviled by their post-coital customers: he anticipates his own imminent death from venereal diseases, which he proposes to bequeath to the audience.) Artistic features: Troilus and Cressida has an unusually arcane and learned vocabulary...

Coriolanus

Coriolanus   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,020 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...’s anti-Coriolanus adaptation was not acted until 1963 , seven years after his death. Back in England, where attitudes to the play’s protagonist have been more ambivalent, Laurence Olivier achieved one of his greatest successes as Coriolanus, with Sybil Thorndike as Volumnia, at the Old Vic in 1938 , a role he repeated in Peter Hall ’s production at Stratford in 1959 , with Edith Evans as his mother. With characteristic physical bravado Olivier made Coriolanus’ death resemble the throwing from the Tarpeian rock threatened earlier by the tribunes,...

Othello

Othello   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, Anthony Davies, and Will Sharpe

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
4,092 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...Cassio in charge, Othello retires to bed with Desdemona. Iago gets Cassio drunk among members of the Cypriot garrison, singing ‘And let me the cannikin clink’ and ‘King Stephen was a worthy peer’. Iago alleges that Cassio is a drunkard, a story apparently confirmed when Cassio drives in Roderigo, who has succeeded in provoking him to fight. Montano tells Cassio he is drunk, and they also fight. An alarm bell summons Othello to quell this brawl: he interrogates the participants, and Iago, feigning to defend Cassio, blames the incident on the lieutenant....

Tobit

Tobit   Reference library

Joseph A. Fitzmyer, SJ and Joseph A. Fitzmyer, SJ

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
7,111 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...mentioning healing ( 5:10; 11:11 ). ( 8:1–21 ) Sarah is Cured of the Demon v. 2 , ‘incense’, used domestically to fumigate or perfume a house. In obedience to Raphael's instruction ( 6:17 ), Tobias burns the fish's heart and liver on its embers to create a smoke that will drive Asmodeus away. v. 3 , ‘Egypt’, the demon flees to Egypt, traditionally considered the home of magic ( see Ex 7:11; 1Qap Gen 20:20 ), where Raphael, having pursued Asmodeus, binds and renders him ineffective. vv. 5–7 , Tobias's prayer, the third formal prayer, is uttered in...

1 & 2 Samuel

1 & 2 Samuel   Reference library

Gwilym H. Jones, Gwilym H. Jones, and Gwilym H. Jones

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
44,450 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the Amalekite, who claimed to have killed Saul, be put to death. The sin of these assassins was worse; they had ‘killed a righteous man on his bed in his own house’ ( v. 11 ), and they are to suffer the same fate ( v. 12 ). Although these men had by their action participated in David's advance to the throne, this narrative, like the account of Abner's death, shows that David was totally innocent of such assassinations. ( 2 Sam 5:1–25 ) Kingship at Hebron and the Capture of Jerusalem With Ishbaal's death David was at last free to take the throne of Israel....

1 & 2 Kings

1 & 2 Kings   Reference library

Walter Dietrich, Walter Dietrich, and Walter Dietrich

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
40,434 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...messages. Here (as in Jer 28 and Mic 3:5–8 ) the basic rule seems to be that a prophet is less convincing the more clearly he confirms wishes and expectations. Micaiah ben Imlah declares that his opponents are possessed by an evil spirit with whose help they wish to drive the king to death. His knowledge of this stems from witnessing (in a vision, cf. Isa 6 ) discussions at a heavenly council. In passing on his secret knowledge to the mortally endangered king, Micaiah gives him a final chance to change course. The lying spirit, however, prevails over the...

Mark

Mark   Reference library

C. M. Tuckett and C. M. Tuckett

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
44,701 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...( 6:14–29 ) Herod and the Death of John the Baptist Between the sending out of the twelve on mission and their return ( v. 30 ), Mark inserts the note about Herod's views on Jesus, which leads into a retrospective account of the death of John the Baptist. In literary terms, the insertion serves to fill a gap in the story of the mission (about which Mark seems to have had very little information); but it also serves to intensify the general theme of the fate that awaits Jesus. John is the forerunner of Jesus, and here his violent death is recalled. The reader...

Islamic Culture in Danger

Islamic Culture in Danger   Reference library

Muhammad Shahrur

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
4,191 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in the political consciousness of the people at that time, anyone who wanted to form a state had to become a prophet. al-Aswad al-‘Anzi before the death of the Messenger is the most famous who claimed prophecy in Yemen because he wished to separate from the central state, thus the Prophet's order to kill him. In the separatist political apostasy there is fighting and killing. Likewise after the death of the Messenger several attempts at separation took place and those responsible had to claim prophecy; given the political mentality it meant that they...

Design

Design   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,178 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...than conformity to basic principles. He led the way in manipulating the market by feeding the engine of consumption with a constant stream of invention, boosted by a heavy dose of marketing. In the wake of this example, the ever-growing cycle of productive capacity, marketing drive, and appetite for consumption had by 1800 resulted in an unprecedented thirst for novelty, increasingly distanced from the chaste neoclassical ‘true style’. The fascination with alternative sources of design can be traced back at least to the early eighteenth century, when rich,...

Numbers

Numbers   Reference library

Terence E. Fretheim and Terence E. Fretheim

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
29,420 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...The second segment ( vv. 41–9; see Num 21:1–22:1 ) moves quickly to the present situation (with a passing reference to Mt. Nebo, the site of Moses' death and burial). ( 33:50–6 ) Directions for Conquest of Canaan This segment constitutes hortatory instructions from God to Moses regarding the nature of the attack on Canaan, which God has given for Israel to possess ( v. 53 ). In possessing the land, they are to drive out (not exterminate; cf. Ex 23:23; Deut 7:1–6 ) all the present inhabitants, destroy their images and sanctuaries, and apportion the land by lot...

Popular Culture

Popular Culture   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,520 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...his New Lanark factory. The rise of a unified public sense of time also testified to the drive of middle-class reformers to make plebeian culture as standardized and controllable as possible. The many varied work rhythms which Thompson described as part of task-orientation were overridden by the demands of factory timetables. A public time schedule, fitting leisure around a predominantly regular working week, was becoming the norm, and its eventual dominance was to drive many heterodox and marginalized temporalities out of sight. The triumph of the public...

War

War   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,919 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...nearly half of whom were locally trained civilian *volunteers but who offered service in any part of the country in the event of invasion. However, civilian participation in national defence went far beyond the volunteers: rural workers were enrolled to assist the army and to ‘drive’ districts by removing or destroying anything of use to the enemy; women formed ‘committees of clothing’ to provide for the troops, or featured in patriotic ceremonies to underline the point that the whole of society was under threat; patriotic subscriptions, which were numerous,...

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