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dating methods

During the last century geologists constructed a relative time-scale based on correlation of palaeontological and stratigraphic data. Depositional rates of sediments have also been ...

dating methods

dating methods   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geology and Earth Sciences (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

... methods During the last century geologists constructed a relative timescale based on correlation of palaeontological and stratigraphic data. Depositional rates of sediments have also been employed as a dating method, but only recently has absolute dating been made possible through the use of radioactive isotopes . Of the various methods the last is obviously the most precise, but fossils , lithologies , and cross-cutting relationships do enable the geologist to give an approximate relative age in field studies. See also absolute age ; ...

Dating Methods

Dating Methods   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,524 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to date tephra, many igneous rocks, and some metamorphic rocks. U-series is used to date peat, tufas (spring deposits), and coral. Rubidium-strontium (Rb/Sr) is used to date volcanic rock. Both U-series and K/Ar dates span the entire age of the solid Earth, while the radiocarbon method is limited to 40,000 bp , although the accelerator–mass-spectroscopy (AMS) radiocarbon method has the potential to reach to about 90,000 bp . Paleomagnetic Dating Paleomagnetism is used in Quaternary stratigraphic studies as a tool for correlation and relative dating of...

Dating Methods

Dating Methods   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
4,077 words
Illustration(s):
4

...based on paleosols representing interglacial stages separating glacial stages, as with the Lake Michigan glacial lobe (Morrison and Frye, 1965 ). Radiometric Dating Many dating tools are available to provide absolute or relative age controls. Radio metric methods include radiocarbon, K/Ar, U-series, and rubidium strontium (Rb/Sr); each method can be used to date specific material. The radiocarbon method, developed by W. F. Libby of the University of Chicago (Libby et al., 1949), is based on the rate of decay of the radioactive carbon isotope carbon-14. There...

dating methods

dating methods   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... methods The methods used to determine the relative or absolute age of rocks, fossils , or remains of archaeological interest. A relative time scale, constructed in the last century, is based on correlations between palaeontological and stratigraphic data. The rate at which sediments accumulate can also be used for dating ( see varve ). Absolute dating relies on the decay of radioactive isotopes of elements present in the material to be dated ( see decay constant ; decay curve ; decay series ; isotopic dating ; radiocarbon dating ; radiometric...

Scientific Dating Methods in African Archaeology

Scientific Dating Methods in African Archaeology   Reference library

Vincent J. Hare and Emma Loftus

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
10,060 words
Illustration(s):
4

...maximize the utility of radiocarbon dating methods. 2 Figure 1. Age range of dating techniques in African archaeology. The asterisk (*) indicates that the method is regarded as developmental. Adapted from Martin Jim Aitken, Science-Based Dating in Archaeology (New York: Routledge, 2014) . Dating methods are themselves an active area of research, constantly under development and refinement. The field is often a highly technical collaboration between applied physicists and chemists who develop and refine methods of pretreatment and measurement, and...

Dating Methods, Archeological and Historical

Dating Methods, Archeological and Historical   Reference library

Kenneth FEDER

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History
Length:
3,559 words

...Dating Methods In most cases, the application of a relative dating procedure like stratigraphic analysis represents a preliminary step in archaeological dating. The hope always is to go beyond merely sequencing and to determine a site’s age in a chronometric sense. One of the most important chronometric procedures archaeologists employ is radiocarbon dating (also called carbon dating or C-14 dating), one of a series of so-called radiometric techniques. Radiometric dating methods, including carbon dating, potassium-argon dating, argon–argon dating, and...

dating methods

dating methods  

During the last century geologists constructed a relative time-scale based on correlation of palaeontological and stratigraphic data. Depositional rates of sediments have also been employed as a ...
10 Paper

10 Paper   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,008 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...by 1845 , but did not become popular until much later; esparto was used from 1857 , with bagasse (refuse from sugar-making) added c .1884 . Pulping methods for wood can sometimes be assigned by means of stain tests: soda wood came first; mechanical groundwood next, from 1851 ; sulphite from 1872 ; kraft from 1884 , with various semi-mechanical methods starting in the early 20 th century. The exact date for the introduction of any fibre is subject to revision, as early trials certainly antedate the years given, which are when their use was...

43b The History of the Book in Southeast Asia (2): The Mainland

43b The History of the Book in Southeast Asia (2): The Mainland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
2,488 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Thailand, and Northern Thai as well. Today, it is also employed in writing several minority languages of Laos. Variations of Lao tham were used to write the languages of smaller Tai groups such as Tai Lư and Tai Khœn. 2 Dating systems The traditional Vietnamese calendar followed the Chinese model. Years were recorded using a method of cyclical characters and year designations, marking the divisions into different periods or eras of a ruler’s reign. The years, in turn, were divided into twelve lunar months of 29 or 30 days. Over a period of nineteen years,...

16 The History of Illustration and its Technologies

16 The History of Illustration and its Technologies   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,930 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...Dublin), datable to about the end of the 8 th century, and the *Lindisfarne Gospels (British Library), datable to about 710. All such works may be seen as vehicles for illustration, albeit entirely hand-drawn and *illuminated . In Europe, printing from woodblocks was known by the 12 th century, but it was originally employed only for stamping designs on to textiles. The earliest surviving prints on paper are not datable before the final years of the 14 th century. 2 The age of woodcut Among the earliest European woodcuts to bear a date is a Madonna...

11 The Technologies of Print

11 The Technologies of Print   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,192 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
8

...30in. or 76cm. The earliest datable image of a *printing office is a woodcut in a book printed in 1499 . During the first part of the 16 th century, representations of the printing office were symbolic of the trade, and appear on several *title-pages . The images differ in some small details, but, taken together, they confirm that, once established, the equipment and the actions of the printers did not essentially change until 1800 or so. At that point, slight alterations that had begun as refinements of traditional methods and materials gave way to...

Prints

Prints   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,058 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...efforts of ‘Alderman’ John *Boydell , who had sought, like Josiah *Wedgwood , to bring advanced business methods to the marketing of his product, were therefore inimical to the independence of the honourable traditions of engraving [ see *design, 25 ]. It goes without saying that Blake's opinions were highly tendentious. A golden age of line-engraving had never existed in England, and Blake himself was as eclectic in method as any of those that he dismissed so fiercely. Furthermore, he gained more than he was prepared to admit from the increase...

Historic Churches

Historic Churches   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,420 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...men of this town’. Regular fundraising events were held, such as church ales and May games. The earliest surviving structures are in the Romanesque style . Those erected before the Norman Conquest can rarely be dated by written records. Scholars have developed a method of dating such buildings by the styles of their features: see H. M. Taylor and Joan Taylor , Anglo‐Saxon Architecture (3 vols, 1980). The architectural features which are characteristic of pre‐Conquest buildings include double belfry windows with a mid‐wall shaft supporting a...

Agricultural History

Agricultural History   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,344 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of new fallow and other crops, roots, and selected grasses, fen drainage, manuring, and stock breeding were practices that could be dated to the 16th and 17th centuries. Other historians have agreed on the dating of the beginnings of these changes, but they have stressed the slow diffusion of ideas and have argued that these new methods had little quantitative effect on the early modern economy. It is clear, however, that the 16th and 17th centuries saw dramatic improvements in the quality of livestock. In 1500 cattle, sheep, and pigs still had...

17 Bookbinding

17 Bookbinding   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,252 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
9

...down the quires. This method, sometimes called *Coptic sewing , was initially used across Europe, but was abandoned there in favour of *flexible sewing around the beginning of the 9 th century. The Coptic method continued to be used in the Near East, including the Byzantine and Islamic cultures where bookbinding flourished throughout the Middle Ages and beyond. Coptic sewing produces books that open well, but whose spines tend to become concave over time, and whose board attachment may be weaker than that produced by Western methods of laced-in supports....

Place-Names

Place-Names   Quick reference

Margaret Gelling

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,757 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of the earliest English place‐names led to a fresh approach to the whole matter of relative chronology. The earliest surviving English records date from c. 670 , over 200 years later than the first settlements, which means that it will always be impossible to prove that any type of name was predominant in the earliest decades of the Anglo‐Saxon era. But strong circumstantial evidence has been assembled by three methods: the analysis of names recorded between 670 and 730, the study of extant names in areas where the earliest archaeological evidence has been...

Domestic Buildings

Domestic Buildings   Quick reference

Malcolm Airs

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,135 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...The private bank accounts of the very wealthy can often provide important information on the dates and costs of building works, and help to identify the individual architects and craftsmen involved. Coutts, Drummonds, Glyn Mills, Hoare's, and the Bank of England all have records dating back to the 18th century. Fire insurance records can also be of assistance in charting the history of houses of a variety of sizes. From the early 18th century major works of alteration or new building were likely to be followed by the prudent owner taking out an insurance...

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
13,110 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...and later Indo-Arabic numerals or numbers spelt out as words. The numbering of leaves ( *foliation ) did not become widespread until the 16 th century. *Catchwords were also used as a method of ensuring correct sequences as early as the 11 th century, and became common from the 13 th century onwards. Texts normally ended with *colophons , which usually gave the date (and occasionally also the place) of copying and the copyist’s name, together with thankful invocations and benedictions, and sometimes a recapitulation of the title and/or author of the...

40 The History of the Book in China

40 The History of the Book in China   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
8,923 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...large printing block. The ink-squeeze rubbing method of duplicating the texts of steles, and their assumption of book forms in imitation of MSS, offered further stimulation to the idea of textual printing. 2 Tang to Yuan (7 th –14 th centuries) The actual circumstances of the invention of printing in China are not known; however, Tang dynasty ( 618–907 ) references to printing and the corpus of undated specimens of printing from Tang tombs all point to an approximate date no later than ad 700 . Thanks to datable specimens of printing, such as the *Pure...

1 Writing Systems

1 Writing Systems   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,152 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
7

...‘full’ writing system are generally thought to have been pictograms: iconic drawings of, say, a pot, or a fish, or a head with an open jaw (representing the concept of eating). These have been found in Mesopotamia and Egypt dating to the mid-4 th millennium bc , in the Indus Valley dating to the 3 rd millennium, and in China dating to as early as the 5 th millennium, according to the (doubtful) claims of some Chinese archaeologists. In many cases, their iconicity soon became so abstract that it is barely perceptible to us. Fig. 1 shows how the Sumerian...

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