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cytological hybridization

Synonymous with in situ hybridization (q.v.).

cytological hybridization

cytological hybridization   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Genetics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
8 words

... hybridization synonymous with in situ hybridization ( q.v...

cytological hybridization

cytological hybridization  

Synonymous with in situ hybridization (q.v.).
Drosophila salivary gland chromosomes

Drosophila salivary gland chromosomes  

The most extensively studied polytene chromosomes. During larval development, the cells of the salivary gland undergo 9 or 10 cycles of endomitotic DNA replications to produce chromosomes that ...
in situ hybridization

in situ hybridization   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Genetics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
117 words

...C , 1969, Gall and Pardue; 1975, Grunstein and Hogness; 1981, Harper and Saunders; 1983, Hafen, Levine, and Gehring; chromosome painting , cytological map , fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) , physical map , probe...

fluorescence in situ hybridization

fluorescence in situ hybridization   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Genetics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
186 words

...C , 1980, Bauman et al .; centromere , chromosomal aberration , chromosome painting , cytological map , fluorochrome , in situ hybridization , telomere , physical map...

chromosome painting

chromosome painting   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Genetics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
131 words

...to produce probes that will individually label each chromosome. Cross-species chromosome painting and digital imaging are now commonly used in studies of the evolution of mammalian karyotypes. See Appendix C , 1997, Yang et al .; cytological map , multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (mFISH) , probe...

somatic cell hybridization

somatic cell hybridization   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Genetics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
248 words

...cells, which can then be analyzed cytologically and biochemically. In humans, somatic cell hybrids are often derived from the fusion of human and mouse cells. After propagation in culture, the hybrid cells lead to the production of synkaryons in which a single nucleus contains both human and mouse chromosomes, which can be distinguished by cytological means. Subsequently, the human chromosomes are preferentially lost at random from the synkaryons, and different hybrid cell lines—each with just one or a few human chromosomes but which collectively contain all...

physical map

physical map   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Genetics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
255 words

...maps complement each other, but differ in their means of construction, degree of resolution, and uses. The order of DNA information on physical maps is determined by such means as cytological staining and microscopic identification of chromosomal bands, somatic cell hybridization ( q.v .), restriction mapping of cloned genomic fragments, contig assembly, in situ hybridization ( q.v .), shotgun sequencing ( q.v .), and sequence assembly and analysis. Physical maps can be combined with genetic or cytogenetic maps to correlate genetic elements on a...

chromosomal aberration

chromosomal aberration   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Genetics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
192 words

...chromosome sets. See Appendix C , 1959, Ford et al ., Jacobs and Strong, Lejeune et al .; 1960, Polani et al .; aberrant euploidy , aneuploidy , chromosome mutation , chromosome polymorphism , chromosome set , cytological map , deficiency , deletion , disomy , duplication , euploidy , fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) , genetic marker , heteroploid , hyperploid , hypoploid , induced mutation , insertion , insertional duplication , inversion , monoploid , monosomic , mutagen , mutagenesis , mutation , nullisomic , polyploidy...

Drosophila salivary gland chromosomes

Drosophila salivary gland chromosomes   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Genetics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
260 words
Illustration(s):
1

...that contain 1000–2000 times the haploid amount of DNA. The cytological map of the chromosomes of D. melanogaster contains slightly over 5000 bands. It is divided into 102 divisions, distributed as illustrated. The solid circles represent the centromeres. Each division is subdivided into subdivisions lettered A–F, and the subdivisions contain varying numbers of bands. Genes have been localized within these bands by studying overlapping deficiencies and, more recently, by in situ hybridization with labeled probes. Since the number of genes in the...

physical map

physical map ((in genetics))   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Biology (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
371 words

...depicting chromosome banding patterns, which are dark and light transverse bands obtained by staining entire chromosomes in mitosis. These cytological maps enable characterization of individual chromosomes and can reveal gross anomalies, such as missing or duplicated segments. The chromosomal location of a particular DNA base sequence of interest can be determined using a DNA probe and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Restriction mapping reveals the order and distance apart of sites cleaved by restriction enzymes; such sites are important...

botany

botany   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
962 words

...Dalton Hooker in Kew Gardens, England, felt it necessary to reassert the value of taxonomy as an academic discipline in the Index Kewensis and his and George Bentham 's Genera Plantarum . Botany soon became the prime area for genetic research, as in pure-line experiments, cytology , fertilization, and cell division. In the twentieth century increasing investigations into fossil plants led to debate over the origin of flowering plants (angiosperms) in the Cretaceous period. This also involved controversy over what should properly be considered primitive....

heredity

heredity   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,204 words

...to be enlarged. However, hybridization in plants and animals indicated that organisms could be modified. During the nineteenth century, this and other evidence helped to discredit pre-formationism and to add weight to the ancient idea that characters are transmitted from one generation to the next by the union of generative material from the male and the female. Theories of heredity came to be embedded in the theories of evolution that emerged in the late eighteenth century. In the 1760s, Carl Linnaeus claimed that hybridization occurs in nature and leads...

pathology

pathology   Reference library

William F. Whimster and Yrjö Collan

The Oxford Companion to Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
3,355 words

...this technique in 1928 , and the stain named after him is still widely used. But cells may be obtained if necessary from almost any surface by scraping, brushing, or irrigating, from inside organs and tissues by sucking with a syringe and needle (fine-needle aspiration cytology), and from urine or body fluids, such as cerebrospinal fluid (lumbar puncture), followed by centrifugation. However obtained, the cells are stained on slides, covered with a coverslip, and studied microscopically. Cytopathology is used particularly for the initial diagnosis of...

Biological Sciences

Biological Sciences   Reference library

Philip J. Pauly and Karen A. Rader

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...in the biological sciences at colleges, universities, and research stations started to grow; this trend was enhanced by broader educational and social reforms as well as by the presence of some prominent mentors in certain fields like embryology (Ross Harrison at Yale) and cytology (Edmund Beecher Wilson at Bryn Mawr). The first generation of laboratory-based academic biologists trained during this period focused primarily on the study of cells and embryonic development. They hoped to gain a unified understanding of metabolism, development, reproduction,...

Indigenous American Agricultural Contributions to Modern Global Food Systems

Indigenous American Agricultural Contributions to Modern Global Food Systems   Reference library

Maria C. Bruno

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
Length:
15,345 words
Illustration(s):
4

...botany, genetics, and archaeology fervently debated the relationship between maize and teosinte, and particularly the role of teosinte in the domestication of maize. Until the late 20th century , there were two primary hypotheses that were developed from morphological, cytological (cell structures), and Mendelian genetic comparisons of domesticated maize, wild teosinte, and another closely related grass, Tripsacum . The first hypothesis, most prominently articulated by American geneticist G. W. Beadle ( Beadle, 1939 , 1972 ), was that an annual...

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