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cybernetics

The study of communications systems and of system control in animals and machines. In the life sciences, it also includes the study of feedback controls in homoeostasis.

cybernetics

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The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
12 words

... (Greek, kybernētēs , pilot, governor) The science of communication and control...

cybernetics

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A Dictionary of Computer Science (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

... A discipline concerned with control and communication in animal and machine. Cybernetics attempts to build a general theory of machines independent of the material they are made from, e.g. electronic, organic, clockwork. Cybernetics draws an analogy between brains and electronic circuits. See also neural network...

cybernetics

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A Dictionary of Sports Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
61 words

... The study of how communication, and particularly feedback, occurs between machines and human beings, and in biological systems. The term derives from the Greek word kybernetes (‘steersman’), implying control and direction. Large-scale sports organizations might well be better understood—in terms of their knowledge of and working relationship with their different constituencies, for instance—if a cybernetics approach was applied to...

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A Dictionary of Zoology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
29 words

... The study of communications systems and of system control in animals and machines. In the life sciences, it also includes the study of feedback controls in homoeostasis ....

cybernetics

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A Dictionary of Nursing (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
43 words

...cybernetics [sy-ber- net -iks] n. the science of communication processes and automatic control systems in both machines and living things: a study linking the working of the brain and nervous system with the functioning of computers and automated feedback devices. See also bionics ....

cybernetics

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Concise Medical Dictionary (10 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
40 words

... n. the science of communication processes and automatic control systems in both machines and living things: a study linking the working of the brain and nervous system with the functioning of computers and automated feedback devices. See also bionics...

cybernetics

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
66 words

... Study of communication and control systems in animals, organizations and machines. It makes analogies between the brain and nervous system, and computers and other electronic systems, such as the analysis of the mechanisms of feedback and data processing. A household thermostat might be compared with the body's mechanisms for temperature control and respiration. Cybernetics combines aspects of mathematics, neurophysiology, computer technology, information theory , and...

cybernetics

cybernetics  

Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference

... The study of self-organizing and self-regulating systems, generally in terms of flows of information and mechanisms of control. Developed by mathematician Norbert Weiner in the 1940s as a general theory of complex systems, cybernetics was widely adapted to the study of politics and society. In sociology, it is associated with the functionalism of Talcott Parsons , for whom the notion of self-regulation was central, and (mediated by later developments) with the system(s) theory of Niklas Luhmann . In anthropology, the principal figure was...

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A Dictionary of Electronics and Electrical Engineering (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... The scientific study of information processing, communication, and control in both living and mechanical or electronic entities. Its primary focus is on interactions within systems that contain feedback loops involving a mix of living and mechanized entities. Of particular interest is how human social systems interact with mechanization and automation. ...

cybernetics

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A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
57 words

... The study of communication among machines, animals, and men, particularly the role of feedback information in the process of control. In the social sciences, the theory links social control closely to the nature and function of communication , and has been deployed most widely in the study of formal organizations. See also Parsons ; social system...

cybernetics

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A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
63 words

... The interdisciplinary study of the structure and flow of information in self-regulating communication systems (technical, social, or biological): e.g. issues of feedback and control within organizational communication ( see also information flow ). It was developed by Weiner, becoming popular in the 1950s and 1960s, and is closely related to systems theory and functionalism . ...

cybernetics

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The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
107 words

... . The study of artificial or natural systems which store information and use feedback mechanisms to guide and control their behaviour. Such devices have a fixed behavioural repertoire and thus lack the flexibility of modern programmable computers . The notion of information is precisely mathematically specified in a branch of electrical engineering called communication theory. The notion of feedback has been studied widely in biology. Both of these disciplines have studied such systems. The interest for philosophers resides in the complex patterns of...

cybernetics

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The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,007 words

...problems. Early interest in cybernetics in the USSR was stifled on ideological grounds but in 1955 Aleksandr Mikhailovich Lyapunov , founder of Soviet cybernetics and programming, along with Sergei Sobolev and Anatoly Kitov , published the first permitted paper on cybernetics in Voprosy Filisofii ( Problems of Philosophy ). Soon thereafter, V. M. Glushkov established the Institute of Cybernetics in the Ukraine though its independent work does not appear to have had much impact on western studies. Cybernetics was closely related to the...

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A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... n. The comparative study of automatic feedback and control processes in mechanical, electronic, and biological systems, especially processes in which negative feedback keeps the system in a particular state or on course towards a particular goal. The term was coined in 1947 by the US mathematician Norbert Wiener ( 1894–1964 ) and the Mexican neurophysiologist Arturo Rosenblueth ( 1900–70 ). See also closed-loop control , homeostasis , open-loop control , tote . cybernetic adj. [From Greek kybernetes a steersman + - ikos of,...

cybernetics

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Encyclopedia of Semiotics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
1,042 words

... . One of the basic disciplines in modern natural sciences and epistemology, cybernetics has provided some of the most powerful conceptual tools for the development of computers and theories of dynamic systems. Derived from the ancient Greek verb kubernētēs (pilot), cybernetics—the science of control and communication in organisms and machines ( Wiener , 1948 )—deals with systems at a very abstract level and has been applied beyond the domains of the natural and computer sciences, such as in the study of complex systems in general. It has been...

cybernetics

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The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
726 words

... is the science of control. Its name, appropriately suggested by the mathematician Norbert Wiener ( 1894–1964 ), is derived from the Greek for ‘steersman’, pointing to the essence of cybernetics as the study and design of devices for maintaining stability, or for homing in on a goal or target. Its central concept is feedback . Since the ‘devices’ may be living or man-made, cybernetics bridges biology and engineering. Stability of the human body is achieved by its static geometry and, very differently, by its dynamic control. A statue of a human...

Cybernetics

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Atilla Bir and Mustafa Kaçar

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
1,053 words
Illustration(s):
3

... Cybernetics, meaning “helmsman” in Greek, was first defined in the mid-twentieth century by Norbert Wiener ( 1894–1964 ) as an interdisciplinary science in order to explore automatic control systems, and find out their structures, constraints, and possibilities. The theory of automatic control systems is an idea closely related to feedback concept. A system is composed of a combination of components that act together and perform certain objectives. In a feedback system, the output signal is fed back to increase or reduce the input signal. Although...

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A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...cybernetics The study of electronic communication, feedback, and control mechanisms. ...

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A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... The study of communications systems and of system control in animals and machines. In the life sciences, it also includes the study of feedback controls in homoeostasis...

managerial cybernetics

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A Dictionary of Social Work and Social Care (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...cybernetics A perspective on the process of management that has been very influential in social work and the public sector generally. It advocates: identifying the organization’s objectives; developing performance indicators to reflect the objectives; and setting targets in relation to the performance indicators. Managers then choose actions to take and direct effort towards achieving the targets and progress is monitored against the performance indicators. For example, a local authority children’s services might have an objective to have more ...

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