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Overview

cultural diffusion

A social process resulting in the transfer of beliefs, values, and social activities (e.g. games or sports) from one society to another.

cultural diffusion

cultural diffusion   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science & Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007

... diffusion A social process resulting in the transfer of beliefs, values, and social activities (e.g. games or sports) from one society to...

cultural diffusion

cultural diffusion   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sports Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
230 words

... diffusion The spread of a particular cultural form or practice—such as sport, or music, or food—from one social and political context to another, on the basis of contact between different societies. In sport, it has been widely asserted that an Anglo-Saxon or British model of sport was, through the formal Empire and political rule, and the informal Empire and trade networks, diffused worldwide. The assumption of the diffusion approach is that contact equates with spread, in an almost automatic or organic way. But cultural forms develop differently...

cultural diffusion

cultural diffusion   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Gangs

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology, Law
Length:
101 words

... diffusion When a culture is spread beyond its point of origin. In relation to gangs, a process of cultural diffusion occurred beginning in the 1980s. Gang style is now a mainstream style, and music favoured by gang members, such as gangsta rap , is now popular music. The mass media are responsible for the diffusion of gang culture throughout the United States, and the diffusion of gang culture is partially responsible for more youth self-identifying as gang members, as well as the further criminalization of gangs. Further reading: C. L. Maxson , ...

cultural diffusion

cultural diffusion  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A social process resulting in the transfer of beliefs, values, and social activities (e.g. games or sports) from one society to another.
Mythology

Mythology   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,714 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Richard Payne *Knight , who preferred a polygenetic, and often a polytheistic, account of cultural origins. Both diffusionism and anti-diffusionism reveal a common taxonomic agenda of reducing the heterogeneity of cultures to a common standard, whether based upon revelation or reason. New knowledge of non-Christian religious traditions served to deepen the sceptical currents established by Renaissance scholars, revitalizing the Greek and Roman pantheons and introducing a plethora of new, now mainly oriental deities into the European image-repertoire. The pagan...

Utopianism

Utopianism   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,929 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...that Britain had undergone a process of rapid and extensive social transformation in which the naturally virtuous mores of a closely knit, largely agricultural society were being supplanted by more selfish, impersonal, aggressive manners dominated by money-getting and the diffusion of luxury goods. *Satirists found much to sustain them in the rising social expectations of tradesmen. Concern was widespread that unabashed greed, accompanied by a sharp growth in the *national debt , spelt the irrevocable decline of civic as well as private virtue, and...

20b The History of the Book in Britain, 1801–1914

20b The History of the Book in Britain, 1801–1914   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,058 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...Society and the *Religious Tract Society . Strict sabbatarianism gave rise to Sunday newspapers and to programmes of respectable reading for boys and girls. Similarly, the secular utilitarian ideologies of free trade and political economy, espoused by the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (SDUK), were widely promoted in its Penny Magazine and other publications. At the other end of the political spectrum, radical political ideas circulating in the first two decades of the 19 th century grew out of a profoundly literate working-class...

Music

Music   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,344 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... *military bands ]. Key elements in the development of modern popular music (expansion, diversification, and nationalization) can hardly yet be discerned. If the success of Romantic music was undoubted, it still awaited exponents of charisma and entrepreneurs capable of wide diffusion. Paganini came in 1831 , defining virtuosity; Liszt toured the provinces in 1840–1 , and his successors perfected large playing to large audiences. But it was only in the 1830s and 1840s that British musical life began to move towards modern patterns of organization. John...

27 The History of the Book in the Iberian Peninsula

27 The History of the Book in the Iberian Peninsula   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,196 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Castellanos and their more popular Colección Austral, launched in 1937 by their Buenos Aires office during the Spanish Civil War. The Second Spanish Republic ( 1931–6 ) brought in a policy of promoting books and of integrated publishing that supported education and the diffusion of culture. Intellectuals associated with the Institución Libre de Enseñanza (Free Institute for Teaching) and members of La Generación del 27 (The Generation of 1927 ) founded important periodicals: the Revista de Occidente , directed by the philosopher José Ortega y Gasset...

37 The History of the Book in Sub-Saharan Africa

37 The History of the Book in Sub-Saharan Africa   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,157 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...standard *anthologies of African and Caribbean writing, including Poètes d’expression française (ed. Léon Damas, 1947 ) and Anthologie de la poésie nègre et malgache (ed. Senghor, 1948 ). Among early Francophone African publishing houses were the Centre d’édition et de diffusion africaines in Abidjan, the Centre d’édition et de production pour l’enseignement et la recherche in Yaoundé (both 1961 ), and, more significantly, Éditions CLE in Yaoundé, established in 1963 with German and Dutch church funding; the last remained for many years the only...

Political Economy

Political Economy   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,138 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...achieved at the expense of consumers, wage-earners, and taxpayers. Indeed, for Smith, it was the ‘policy of Europe’ in giving artificial encouragement to commerce and manufacturing at the expense of agriculture that had now become the chief obstacle to the expansion and diffusion of those forms of ‘publick happiness’ that derived from economic growth. Hence what he described as one of the main purposes of the Wealth of Nations was to sustain a ‘very violent attack’ on all manifestations of *mercantilism —that mode of thinking closely associated with...

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,044 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...different routes, they were both instrumental in creating highly evolved communication networks. Access to the production and ownership of MSS was restricted in the Hindu and Buddhist traditions, yet the rise of the vernaculars in the second millennium ce saw a much wider diffusion of the culture of writing and reading. The examples of the great Indian epics * Mahābhārata and Rāmāyaṇa demonstrate how new interpretive communities were formed once the Sanskrit hegemony was challenged, and created a kind of ‘social memory’ mediated by the book. On the...

12 The Economics of Print

12 The Economics of Print   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,040 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...was not to reach that level again until the outbreak of World War I. J. Barnes has argued that such monetary crises spurred innovation in publishing. Certainly, many successes arose from experiments begun in economic depression. For example, *Knight and the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (SDUK) launched the *Library of Useful Knowledge in the turbulent post-Napoleonic era. Each fortnightly issue cost 6 d ., and sales, often to the working or lower-middle classes, sometimes reached 20,000 per issue. Another publisher who profited from...

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
13,110 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...(Būdāq Qazwīnī, quoted in Déroche, 192). With all due allowance for exaggeration, these references indicate that book production was by no means an exclusively male domain in traditional Muslim societies. Scribal activity did not entirely displace oral transmission in the diffusion of texts, however. Written books were often created in the first place by copying from dictation or from memory. The right to transmit the text was frequently granted in the form of a licence ( ijāza ) given by the author (or, later, an authorized agent in an established chain...

Dialect

Dialect   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
1,463 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...thing. Otto Jespersen was among the latter: “If we think out logically and bravely what is for the good of society, our view of language will lead us to the conclusion that it is our duty to work in the direction which natural evolution has already taken, i.e. towards the diffusion of the common language at the cost of local dialects.” Otto Jespersen , Mankind, Nation, and Individual from a Linguistic Point of View 72 ( 1946 ). On the other hand, dialects are surprisingly hardy and perennial, as other linguists have noted: “With monotonous regularity...

media flows

media flows  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
The diffusion of media content in global markets. Since the 1970s, the global diffusion of American media content has frequently been seen as a kind of cultural imperialism. It is very much a one-way ...
culture area

culture area  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A geographical region defined by certain shared cultural traits, such as similar languages or forms of social organization. The concept has been central to theories of cultural diffusion, which ...
Kulturkreis

Kulturkreis  

Reference type:
Overview Page
In English, the term means culture-circle or culture area. It is associated with the theory of cultural diffusion elaborated by the Vienna school of ethnology in the early twentieth century ...
cultural change

cultural change  

Reference type:
Overview Page
How cultural forms emerge, and are then influenced, reproduced, or changed is a central question for sports studies scholars combining historical and sociological approaches. Change can be influenced ...
absorbing barrier

absorbing barrier  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A barrier that prevents the spread of innovations and cultural forms. Usually it is a strongly entrenched competing form of cultural activity; sometimes it is a legal barrier to importation. ...

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