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cryosphere

That part of the Earth where the surface is frozen, comprising the area covered by ice sheets and glaciers, permafrost regions, and sea areas covered by ice, at least in winter.

cryosphere

cryosphere   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... The ice at or below the Earth’s surface, including glaciers , ice-caps and ice sheets , pack ice and permafrost . Climatic cooling increases the cryosphere ( Lewis et al. (2007) GSA Bull. 119, 11 ). The mass balance of the cryosphere is most likely contributing to sea-level rise (J. Bamber and A. Payne...

cryosphere

cryosphere   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

... The portion of the Earth's environment in which water is in the frozen state. The cryosphere thus consists of ice sheets , glaciers , permafrost regions, sea ice , and those areas covered in seasonal snow or ice. It contains c .70 per cent of all fresh water. The term is sometimes restricted to areas that are permanently...

cryosphere

cryosphere   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geology and Earth Sciences (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

... That part of the Earth where the surface is frozen, comprising the area covered by ice sheets and glaciers , permafrost regions, and sea areas covered by ice, at least in...

Cryosphere

Cryosphere   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

... The cryosphere (from Greek kryos , “cold”) refers to parts of the Earth's surface that contain frozen water: polar ice sheets, glaciers, sea ice, frozen river and lake ice, snow cover, and permafrost. Globally, about 11 percent of land surface is covered by perennial ice in the form of glaciers and ice sheets, and about 14 percent of the land has permanently frozen soil. Seasonal snow covers about 14 percent of the land surface, and sea ice about 7 percent of the world ocean, although their extent varies depending on the time of year. About 69 percent...

Cryosphere

Cryosphere   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

... The cryosphere is that part of the Earth's surface or subsurface environment that is composed of water in the solid state. It contains nearly 80 percent of all the Earth's fresh water. Its six main elements, in diminishing order of area occupied at the surface, are: (1) seasonal snow cover, (2) sea ice, (3) polar ice sheets, (4) mountain glaciers, (5) river and lake ice, and (6) permafrost. Ice in clouds is also an important element in climate but is not considered part of the cryosphere. Climatic Roles In considering the roles of cryospheric...

Cryosphere

Cryosphere   Reference library

Magic Universe: A Grand Tour of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
2,865 words

...was often the case in the past. The ice sheets plus sea-ice, together with freezing lakes and rivers, and the mountain glaciers that exist even in the tropics, are known collectively as the cryosphere. It ranks with the atmosphere and the hydrosphere—the wet world—as a key component of the Earth system. As scientists struggle to judge how and why the cryosphere varies, they have to sort out the machinery of cause and effect. There is always an ambiguity. Are changes in the ice driving a global change, or responding to it? At the start of the 21st century,...

cryosphere

cryosphere   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... That part of the Earth’s surface where the temperature is permanently below freezing, and sea areas that are covered by ice for part of the...

cryosphere

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A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

... The frozen part of the Earth's surface, which includes the polar ice caps , continental ice sheets , mountain glaciers , sea ice, snow cover, lake and river ice, and permafrost...

cryosphere

cryosphere  

That part of the Earth where the surface is frozen, comprising the area covered by ice sheets and glaciers, permafrost regions, and sea areas covered by ice, at least in winter.
climate system

climate system  

The five interacting environmental systems (atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere) that are responsible for the climate and its variations.
Cryosat

Cryosat  

A European Space Agency satellite, designed specifically to monitor long-term changes in the cryosphere. The initial satellite was lost through a launcher failure in October 2005, but a replacement ...
environmental system

environmental system  

A system that is based on the natural environment and includes biotic and abiotic components which interact. The major environmental systems are the atmosphere (air), biosphere (living organisms), ...
Snow Cover

Snow Cover  

Snow cover is the most spatially extensive and seasonally variable component of the global cryosphere. On average, snow covers 46 million square kilometers, or half, of the Northern Hemisphere land ...
Earth system

Earth system  

Reference type:
Overview Page
In the mid-1980s francis bretherton, a British-born fluid dynamicist, was chairman of NASA's Earth System Science Committee. He produced a diagram to show what he meant by the Earth system. ...
Ice-rafting events

Ice-rafting events  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Glacial surges in sudden changes of climateCalved from greenland's glaciers, icebergs migrate south in spring and early summer, carried by the subzero Labrador Current. When they meet the warm ...
hydrosphere

hydrosphere  

The portion of the Earth's surface that consists of water, as distinct from the solid, rocky lithosphere and the gaseous atmosphere. It is also generally taken to include the cryosphere.
Land Surface Processes

Land Surface Processes  

The study of rates of land surface change has always been a central focus of geomorphologic research (Goudie, 1995). Geomorphologists, who study the nature and history of landform development and ...
geosphere

geosphere  

The upper part of the continental crust, together with the soil and organic matter found on or close to the surface. It is the part of the solid Earth that supports life and interacts directly with ...
glaciation

glaciation  

1 The process by which supercooled water droplets change into ice crystals in the top of a cumulonimbus cloud as it reaches the calvus stage. The cloud may subsequently develop capillatus features or ...
permafrost

permafrost  

Permanently frozen ground which occupies some 26% of the Earth's land surface under thermal conditions where temperatures below 0 °C have persisted for at least two consecutive winters and the ...

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