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criticism

Subject: Literature

The reasoned discussion of literary works, an activity which may include some or all of the following procedures, in varying proportions: the defence of literature against moralists and ...

criticism

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The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...criticism) emerged from Romanticism to dominate much 19th- and 20th-century critical writing, but has tended to give way to ‘objective’ criticism, focusing on the work itself (as in New Criticism and structuralism ), and to a shift of attention to the reader in reader-response criticism . Particular schools of criticism also seek to understand literature in terms of its relations to history, politics, gender, social class, mythology, linguistic theory, or psychology, as with psychoanalytic criticism , Marxist criticism , feminist criticism , ...

criticism

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The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science & Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007

... The analysis of a performance. The term is often used in the pejorative sense of making an unfavourable or severe comment, but criticism of athletes can be a useful motivational strategy if used sensitively, for example, when combined with praise and followed with suggestions as to how to improve. It is generally agreed that criticisms consisting only of unspecific exhortations to try harder are not very...

Criticism

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Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
4,014 words

...textual criticism as a philological method of restoring corrupted textual passages (implying emendation and judgment), a technique from which criticism of literature and the arts evolved much later. The Term Criticism The comparatist René Wellek approaches this history of literary criticism from a somewhat narrower perspective. In The Term and Concept of Literary Criticism (in Wellek, 1963), he briefly explores the Greco-Latin etymology of the word, but what actually interests him was the question of how and why the term criticism ( critica , la...

Criticism

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Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
10,546 words

... This entry comprises four essays on the forms of criticism specific to different artistic or cultural spheres: Art Criticism Cultural Criticism Dance Criticism Music Criticism Because criticism is where aesthetics is put into practice, one could also say it is where philosophy and art meet. The results are different in the various arts, several of which are discussed in depth here. For the discussion of literary criticism, see Literature , article on Literary Aesthetics ; and for criticism in the other arts not discussed here, see their respective...

Criticism

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The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
1,653 words

...features of criticism between 1970 and 1990 were the impact of feminism , particularly in the 1970s, and the massive influence on literary interpretation of psychoanalysis . This was a period in which the intellectual leaders of French modernity (Barthes, Lacan , Derrida , Foucault , Kristeva , Irigaray , Lyotard ) exerted a powerful influence well beyond the frontiers of France. It should not be thought that these developments have meant the end of more traditional modes of criticism in France. Much journalistic criticism is relatively...

Criticism

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Andrew Ford, Michael R. Orwicz, Marianna De Marco Torgovnick, Graham McFee, Charles Palermo, and Sam Rose

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
17,070 words

... . To capture the complex history of criticism in relation to the various arts, this entry comprises six essays: Ancient Criticism Art Criticism Cultural Criticism Dance Criticism Literary Criticism Formalism in Art Criticism The first essay analyzes the emergence of criticism in ancient Greek culture. The second essay discusses art criticism, and the third covers cultural criticism. While the fourth essay explains how criticism is practiced in dance, the fifth does the same for literature. The sixth essay focuses on the various meanings of formalism in...

Criticism

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Lars Helgert

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
11,698 words

...book-length works. American music criticism is indebted to European models, a point implicitly acknowledged in 1900 by seminal Chicago music critic W.S.B. Mathews in his choice of sources to describe act of criticism: “The modern critic builds on the platform of Goethe, whose three famous questions were first the reporter's question, ‘ What has been done?’ Then the criticism of the workmanship, ‘ How has it been done?’ And finally, the spirit-searching question, ‘Was it worth doing ?’” In separating American music criticism from its European ancestry,...

Criticism

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Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
7,093 words

...that for many the term criticism quickly took on negative connotations: “Why are you always engaging in so much criticism?”—meaning destructive criticism. I can remember my own mother, when I was a teenager, shouting at me, “Wayne C., I just can't stand hearing so much criticism”—by which she meant, negative judgments on her own critical judgments and behavior. As the term was adopted more and more by students of literature, for some it came to mean simply literary criticism: the judgment of literary quality. And since such judgments are always...

criticism

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The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
1,048 words

... Theatre criticism in the twentieth century saw an increasing – and regrettable – dichotomy between academic criticism and journalistic evaluation, with the contribution that the latter has made to the evolution of drama greatly under-estimated. British newspapers at the beginning of the century gave their critics enough space to launch personal crusades: Clement Scott ( 1841–1904 ) persistently attacked Ibsen and other naturalistic writers, deeming their subject matter inappropriate and their language indecorous; William Archer was equally...

Criticism

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The Oxford Companion to Australian Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
7,108 words

... . The beginnings of literary criticism in Australia are inextricably bound up with the early history of magazine publishing in the colonies. As Frank S. Greenop 's History of Magazine Publishing in Australia ( 1947 ) makes clear, the early decades of the nineteenth century are strewn with short-lived journals, some of which at least made a gesture towards disseminating literary views and information. The first magazine published in NSW, the Australian Magazine , appeared in 1821 under the editorship of the Rev. Ralph Mansfield as A Compendium...

Criticism

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J. Culler

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
2,549 words

...of crit.—poetics and evaluation—may become central once again. See close reading , cultural criticism , post-structuralism . Bibliography Abrams; Wellek; Frye; Wimsatt and Brooks; V. B. Leitch , American Literary Criticism from the Thirties to the Eighties (1988) ; CHLC ; The Norton Anthology of Theory and Criticism , ed. V. Leitch et al. (2001) ; A. Ford , The Origins of Criticism (2002) ; The Johns Hopkins Guide to Literary Theory and Criticism , ed. M. Groden et al., 2d ed. (2005). J....

linguistic criticism

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A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...criticism A mode of literary criticism that focuses on the linguistic structure of a text pioneered by English linguist Roger Fowler . It is particularly noted for its interest in the way power is conveyed in language. Further Reading: R. Fowler Linguistic Criticism ...

linguistic criticism

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A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...criticism A mode of literary criticism that focuses on the linguistic structure of a text pioneered by English linguist Roger Fowler . It is particularly noted for its interest in the way power is conveyed in language. Further Reading: R. Fowler Linguistic Criticism ...

higher criticism

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
40 words

...criticism . The critical study of the literary methods and sources used by the authors of (especially) biblical Books, in distinction from textual (‘lower’) criticism, which is concerned solely with recovering the text as it left its author's...

textual criticism

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The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...criticism A branch of literary scholarship that attempts to establish the most accurate version of a written work by comparing all existing manuscript and/or printed versions so as to reconstruct from them the author’s intention, eliminating copyists’ and printers’ errors and any corrupt interpolations . See also bibliography , higher criticism , redaction...

redaction criticism

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
27 words

...criticism . The investigation of the editorial work done by biblical writers on earlier material, e.g. of the use of the Marcan material by Matthew and Luke...

practical criticism

practical criticism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to English Literature (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature
Length:
128 words

...criticism The term used in academic literary studies for an exercise in which students are required to comment upon a poem or short prose passage without knowledge of its authorship, date, or circumstances of composition. This procedure encourages attention to form, diction, and style rather than ‘extraneous’ associations. It was adopted by I. A. Richards at the University of Cambridge in the 1920s as an experiment which he records and analyses in his book Practical Criticism ( 1929 ). Thereafter it became a standard exercise, especially under the...

practical criticism

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The Concise Oxford Companion to English Literature (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Literature
Length:
128 words

...criticism The term used in academic literary studies for an exercise in which students are required to comment upon a poem or short prose passage without knowledge of its authorship, date, or circumstances of composition. This procedure encourages attention to form, diction, and style rather than ‘extraneous’ associations. It was adopted by I. A. Richards at the University of Cambridge in the 1920s as an experiment which he records and analyses in his book Practical Criticism ( 1929 ). Thereafter it became a standard exercise, especially under the...

textual criticism

textual criticism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
99 words

...criticism The theory and practice of editing a text. Textual criticism is an ancient discipline, dating back to the *Alexandrian Library . Its traditional aim in the field of literary studies has been to reconstruct a text as intended by its author, using linguistic, historical, *palaeographical , and *bibliographical evidence, as well as the editor’s critical judgement. Since the 1980s , textual criticism has proliferated in many directions, such that no single aim or method unites the field. Among the most influential textual critics of the...

empirio-criticism

empirio-criticism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
90 words

...criticism . A theory of the knowledge of nature promoted by the German positivist Richard Avenarius and associated with the Austrian physicist and philosopher Ernst Mach . It eliminates all scientific notions not directly or indirectly verifiable in sense experience. The theory marks a meeting-point between German idealism and British empiricism , and the inherent phenomenalism of the position led to Lenin's criticism of it in Materialism and Empirio-criticism as a form of Berkeleian idealism. Prof. Alastair Hannay R. Avenarius , Kritik der...

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