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Overview

covert operation

An operation planned and executed as to conceal the identity of, or permit plausible denial by, the sponsor. A covert operation differs from a clandestine operation in that emphasis is ...

covert operation

covert operation   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

... operation an operation planned and executed as to conceal the identity of, or permit plausible denial by, the sponsor. A covert operation differs from a clandestine operation in that emphasis is placed on concealment of the identity of the sponsor rather than on concealment of the operation...

covert operation

covert operation  

Reference type:
Overview Page
An operation planned and executed as to conceal the identity of, or permit plausible denial by, the sponsor. A covert operation differs from a clandestine operation in that emphasis is ...
Covert Operations

Covert Operations   Reference library

William M. Leary and Timothy J. Lynch

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... Operations In June 1948 , National Security Council Directive 10/2 defined covert operations as actions conducted by the United States against foreign states, “which are so planned and executed that any U.S. Government responsibility for them is not evident to unauthorized persons and that if uncovered the U.S. Government can plausibly disclaim any responsibility for them.” Authorizing the Central Intelligence Agency ( CIA ) to oversee covert operations, the directive outlined five different areas of clandestine operations: propaganda, economic warfare,...

Covert Operations

Covert Operations   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...“other functions and duties” when it made the CIA responsible for covert psychological operations. Directive 10/2 went much further, creating the Office of Special Projects (later, Office of Policy Coordination), headed by Frank Wisner to conduct a wide variety of covert operations. The first clandestine project undertaken by the CIA was an attempt through psychological warfare and political covert action to influence the elections of 1948 in Western Europe. Paramilitary covert operations began with the Korean War . By 1952 , the budget of the Office of...

Islam and the Challenge of Economic Development

Islam and the Challenge of Economic Development   Reference library

Ahmad Khurshid

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
2,573 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...effort is modelled after the prototypes of growth developed by the Western theorists and practitioners of planning and “sold” to the planners in the Muslim countries via international diplomacy, economic pressurization, intellectual mobilization and a number of other overt and covert means. Whatever be the source of inspiration—the Capitalist economies of the West or the Socialist models of Russia and China—no effort worth the name seems to have been made to re-think the basic issues of development economics in the light of the ideals and values of Islam and...

1 Chronicles

1 Chronicles   Reference library

H. P. Mathys, H. P. Mathys, and H. P. Mathys

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
48,015 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...statements. One subject binds the whole chapter together (using catchwords amongst other methods), namely help for David from his supporters and God. The Chronicler does not discuss Saul's kingdom, especially ignoring his conflict with David. That period is presented only covertly here. Since the information in this chapter is concerned with aspects regarded as untypical for the Chronicler (aside from certain high numbers), it is often seen as in part old and dependable, and in part consisting of newer additions from a later period than the Chronicler's...

Jeremiah

Jeremiah   Reference library

Kathleen M. O'Connor and Kathleen M. O'Connor

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
48,981 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...prose comment uses language previously used for Judah to describe devastation of the entire earth ( v. 33 ). vv. 34–8 then narrow the attack to the ‘shepherds’, the kings who are responsible for provoking divine anger ( 25:35–7 ). YHWH, the attacking lion, has already left his ‘covert’ to begin the attack. Chs. 1–25 use mythic, metaphorical description to magnify the threat to Judah as superhuman and inexorable. They charge the people with heinous crimes and obscene infidelities. They portray Jeremiah as isolated and absolutely alone. All these facets of the...

clandestine operation

clandestine operation  

An operation sponsored or conducted by governmental departments or agencies in such a way as to assure secrecy or concealment. A clandestine operation differs from a covert operation in that ...
low-visibility operations

low-visibility operations  

Sensitive operations wherein the political-military restrictions inherent in covert and clandestine operations are either not necessary or not feasible; actions are taken as required to limit ...
special air operation

special air operation  

An air operation conducted in support of special operations and other clandestine, covert, and psychological activities.
Intelligence Reform Act

Intelligence Reform Act  

An act passed by Congress in 1980 to allow the CIA to receive presidential approval for covert operations before congressional oversight committee approval. Earlier restraints in the Hughes-Ryan Act ...
Intelligence Oversight Act

Intelligence Oversight Act  

An act passed in 1980 under President Jimmy Carter's administration to expand the role of Congress in monitoring covert operations. It required the heads of intelligence agencies to keep the ...
airborne land forces

airborne land forces  

Land forces delivered to a combat zone or brought into a region for covert operations by aircraft.
victim-blaming

victim-blaming  

A rather frequent and deplorable attitude and practice of some health care workers when dealing with certain conditions, especially those that carry a stigma, in which, subconsciously or ...
“Pete” Earl Hancock Ellis

“Pete” Earl Hancock Ellis  

(1880–1923) Marine officer and amphibious warfare specialist noted for his descriptions of assault operations for seizing islands in the Pacific (1920). Ellis died while on a covert mission to ...
Islamic Jihad

Islamic Jihad  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(Jihad al-Islami). Also called Organization of Islamic Jihad. Lebanese organization founded by members of Hizb Allah in 1982 and used by Hizb Allah for covert operations. Leadership is shared with ...
National Security Act

National Security Act  

A law signed on July 26, 1947, to reorganize and centralize the military after World War II. It established a National Security Council, which included the newly created Office of ...
counterinsurgency

counterinsurgency  

Reference type:
Overview Page
N.the military, paramilitary, political, economic, psychological, and civic actions taken by a government to defeat insurgency.
guerrilla warfare

guerrilla warfare  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Gǝˈrilǝ ˈwôrˌfermilitary and paramilitary operations conducted in enemy-held or hostile territory by irregular, predominantly indigenous forces.
intelligence services

intelligence services  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
Government organizations dedicated to the collection and evaluation of information, primarily about the intentions of other countries that are seen as adversaries. Such information can be economic, ...

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