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court

Court card a playing card that is a king, queen, or jack of a suit. The term dates from the mid 17th century, and is an alteration of coat card, so named because of the decorative dress of ...

Courts

Courts   Reference library

Concise Oxford Dictionary of Family Names in Britain

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Names studies
Length:
15 words

... 1881: 293; Warwicks; Cornwall. English: variant of Court , with genitival or post-medieval excrescent -s...

courts

courts   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law
Length:
1,499 words
Illustration(s):
3

.... Andrew Le Sueur See also: admiralty courts ; Chancery Court ; civilian courts ; common law courts ; Constitutional Court, South Africa ; Court of Arbitration for Sport ; Court of Criminal Appeal ; Court of Session ; courts martial ; criminal courts ; Crown Court ; Environmental Court ; international courts and tribunals ; international military tribunals ; International Prize Court ; Mental Health Review Tribunals ; magistrates' courts ; Permanent Court of Arbitration ; Supreme Court (UK) ; ...

Courts

Courts   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Italian Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
421 words

... , traditionally the power base of a prince and the refuge for courtiers, took on what is now judged their characteristic form during the later Middle Ages and the Renaissance . Stable political conditions encouraged by the feudal system created the relative security of such courts as that of Frederick II ( 1194–1250 ) in Palermo, where culture could burgeon and cross-fertilize with that of more northerly societies [ see sicilian school ; sicily ]. After 1400 , from a literary and cultural point of view the Renaissance court became more and more a...

Courts

Courts   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
6,449 words

... . This entry comprises two articles. The first discusses the types of church courts that developed within Protestant territories, their relationship to the secular government, and their practices, as well as the changes in the role and practices of church courts in Roman Catholic territories consequent to the Catholic Reformation; the second surveys the types of marriage courts established in Protestant areas, the types of cases they heard, and the sorts of family policy they established. Church Courts Marriage Courts Church Courts Never exclusively...

Courts

Courts   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
10,134 words

...considered as rendered by the Court.” The procedures of the court or chamber are laid down by the Statute of the Court and by the Rules of Court, which the court itself devises. The faithful application of these procedures is part and parcel of the settlement of disputes by the court. The essence of these procedures is adversarial confrontation. The parties first confront each other, confidentially, in the phase of exchanging written pleadings and making submissions to the court, and then in public oral proceedings before the court in the Great Hall of Justice...

Courts

Courts   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
18,635 words
Illustration(s):
4

... . [ This entry contains six subentries, on ancient Greek courts, ancient Roman courts, Chinese courts, English courts, medieval and post-medieval Roman courts, and United States federal courts. ] Courts and Magistrates in Ancient Athens This article deals with law courts and the magistrates who conducted the preliminaries of lawsuits and presided over courts in Athens in the fifth and fourth centuries b.c.e . There is sufficient evidence in the sources for only this period; most helpful is the Constitution of Athens ( Athēnaiōn politeia ) of Aristotle,...

Courts

Courts   Reference library

Mathieu Tillier

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,589 words

...than the Sharīʿah court, which allowed rulers to assert their judicial authority. Himself a source of judicial power, the ruler could preside over the litigations and give binding decisions, or he could appoint deputies who unlike qāḍī s were not bound by the rules of the Sharīʿah (even if these deputies could be Sharīʿah court judges at the same time). Often called “secular” justice because it took place outside the Sharīʿah court, it manifested itself in different ways. The Maẓālim Court. The maẓālim (literally, “wrongs”) court symbolized the...

Courts

Courts   Reference library

Dictionary of American Family Names (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Names studies
Length:
27 words

... US frequency (2010): 1598 1 English: variant of Court , with genitival or post-medieval excrescent -s . 2 Americanized form of German Kurtz or its Dutch cognate Koerts...

State Courts

State Courts   Reference library

Mary Cornelia Aldis Porter

The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Law
Length:
1,964 words

...Courts State cases come to the United States Supreme Court from the highest appellate courts of the states. Under its discretionary authority to accept or reject cases, and in keeping with its own rules of standing to sue , the Court accepts less than 10 percent of all state appeals. State cases also come to the Court from lower federal court rulings on cases originating in state courts. Included in this category are disputes removed from a state to a federal court, federal court injunctions halting state court proceedings, and federal court issuance...

State Supreme Courts

State Supreme Courts   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the High Court of Australia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Law
Length:
1,011 words

...decision of the Full Court of a state Supreme Court was often final. With the establishment of the High Court, a local alternative avenue of appeal from decisions of state Supreme Courts became available. Since the High Court's inception, its Justices have been drawn from the Bar, the Benches of state Supreme Courts (and more recently the Federal Court ), the ranks of federal and state parliaments and (occasionally) the executive government. The first Chief Justice of the High Court, Griffith , was Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Queensland before...

Lower Federal Courts

Lower Federal Courts   Reference library

Harold J. Spaeth

The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Law
Length:
899 words

...Federal Courts The structure of the federal courts was initially set by the Judiciary Act of 1789 and has been basically unchanged since the end of the nineteenth century: a set of trial courts (courts of first instance) forms the base of the pyramid, above which are the intermediate courts of appeal . At the apex sits the U.S. Supreme Court. The trial courts in the federal system are the federal district courts. These courts have authority to hear and decide virtually all cases that the Constitution allows a federal court to resolve. The major...

Hierarchy of courts

Hierarchy of courts   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the High Court of Australia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Law
Length:
1,503 words

... exercising federal jurisdiction … But … the High Court is [also] a court of appeal from all decisions of the Supreme Courts of the States, utterly irrespective of the subject-matter of the suit or the character of the parties. In this respect it resembles the Supreme Court of Canada, and differs from the Supreme Court of the United States. They went on to say that the High Court, like the United States Supreme Court , is the ‘guardian of the Federal Constitution’; but that unlike the Supreme Court it is also ‘the guardian of the Constitutions of the...

Courts of Appeals

Courts of Appeals   Reference library

Rayman L. Solomon and Stephen L. Wasby

The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Law
Length:
903 words

... of Appeals The United States courts of appeals are the intermediate courts in the federal judicial system. They hear appeals from the U.S. district courts and from regulatory agencies, and their rulings are reviewed by the U.S. Supreme Court. There are currently twelve general jurisdiction courts of appeals; all except that for the District of Columbia Circuit are composed of at least three states. The Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit is a semi‐specialized court that handles all appeals in patent cases as well as appeals from civil service...

Courts: Modern Shariah Courts

Courts: Modern Shariah Courts   Reference library

Allan Christelow

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World: Digital Collection

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
2,285 words

... Courts: Modern Shariah Courts Shariah courts in the modern world vary from one setting to another. In many places they are limited to family law, but in others their jurisdiction extends to criminal law and the regulation of public behavior. All these court systems have had respond to challenges arising from the modern context, which has produced pressure both for the adaptation of Islamic law to global norms, and for a return to...

Circuit Courts of Appeals

Circuit Courts of Appeals   Reference library

Rayman L. Solomon

The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Law
Length:
300 words

...courts retained original trial jurisdiction over capital cases, tax cases, and diversity cases where the amount in controversy exceeded the district court's limit. Congress increasingly became convinced that the circuit courts were dispensable, and in a 1911 statute it made the district courts the exclusive federal trial courts. The circuit courts ceased to exist on 1 January 1912 . The circuit courts of appeal were renamed the courts of appeal in 1948 . See also Judicial Power and Jurisdiction ; Lower Federal Courts . Rayman L....

Comparison with other courts

Comparison with other courts   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the High Court of Australia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Law
Length:
2,087 words

...Human Rights. The Supreme Court of Canada resembles the High Court more than any other court. The Supreme Court is both a constitutional court and a general court of appeal. As in the High Court, an appeal lies by special leave , though in certain criminal cases an appeal lies as of right. Unlike the High Court, the Court does not assign a ground for the refusal of special leave. The High Court's use of a video link for special leave hearings was based on a Supreme Court model. These applications are now presented to the Supreme Court in writing, not orally....

Administration of Federal Courts

Administration of Federal Courts   Reference library

Peter G. Fish

The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Law
Length:
462 words

...pronounce” (p. 22). The nineteenth‐century Court marginally supervised system‐wide administration though its rule making powers and through episodic oversight by the circuit riding Supreme Court justice of local court administration. Centralized supervision of the scattered and virtually autonomous federal courts lodged by Congress in different executive branch departments—Treasury ( 1789–1849 ), Interior ( 1849–1870 ), Justice ( 1870–1939 )—initially involved financial accounts and gradually expanded to include court housing, supplies, personnel management,...

Senior Courts

Senior Courts   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Law (10 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Law
Length:
49 words

...Courts The higher courts of England and Wales, excluding the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom : namely, the Crown Court , the High Court of Justice , and the Court of Appeal . Until 2009 these courts were known collectively as the Supreme Court of Judicature...

crown courts

crown courts   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
37 words

...courts In England, courts established In 1971 to replace the assize courts and courts of quarter session. They are superior courts with a general jurisdiction, presided over by High Court judges. See also courts of...

Federal courts

Federal courts   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
37 words

...courts US judicial system consisting of the US Supreme Court, the US courts of appeals and the US district courts. There are also many specialized courts for areas of law including tax, patents, and military...

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