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cotton

Subject: History

[Sp] Bushy plant (Gossypinum hirsutum) with seeds covered in a soft white fibrous substance (lint) that can be made into thread. Native to Mesoamerica and parts of South America. ...

cotton

cotton   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Genetics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
3 words

... Gossypium ( q.v...

cotton

cotton   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
27 words

... Annual shrub native to subtropical regions. Most cotton is grown for the fibres that envelop the seeds and are made into fabric. Family Malvaceae; genus Gossypium...

Cotton

Cotton   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... Cotton king A former nickname for a rich Lancashire or Manchester cotton manufacturer. Sir Robert Peel ( 1750–1830 ), the father of the prime minister of the same name, could be so designated. Cotton kingdom In the USA, the agricultural states of the South, where cotton production expanded rapidly from the close of the 18th century and stimulated the support for slavery. See also king cotton . Cotton on, To To catch on, to grasp a line of thought. The allusion is to cotton fibres that catch on to clothing. Cottonopolis Manchester, long famous for its...

cotton

cotton   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
250 words

... In the wake of the Islamic conquests, cotton weaving and the cultivation of the cotton plant ( Gossypium herbaceum ) expanded in the Mediterranean region. The introduction of fustian manufacturing in northern *Italy in the 12th century gave rise to an extensive trade in crude cotton . The prime grades of Levant cotton heavily represented in Venetian cargoes were those of Syria, *Palestine , Lesser Armenia, and Cyprus. High-quality cotton was grown on a limited scale in *Egypt . Low-grade cotton came primarily from Greece, Turkey, and, in...

Cotton

Cotton   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Family Names of Ireland

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Names studies
Length:
221 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Kildare); Thomas Cotton, gent., and deputy of the auditor of Ireland, 1578 in Fiants Elizabeth §3320; Symon Cotton, soldier, 1607 in Irish Patent Rolls p. 111 (Powerscourt, Wicklow); Samuel Cotton, gent., 1660 in Census and Poll p. 368 (St Warbroughs Street, St Warbrough Parish, Dublin); Eusebines Cotton, gent., 1660 in Census and Poll p. 531 (New Rosse Towne and Liberties, Wexford); Thomas Cotton, 1660 in Census and Poll p. 644 (Tipperary); John Cotton, 1666 in Hearth Money Rolls (Magheralough, Kilskeery, Tyrone); Eusebius Cotton, gent., 1667 in ...

Cotton

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David G. Surdam

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
1,981 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and sleepware to upholstery, bedding, and floor coverings. Labels indicate pure cotton, organic cotton, and natural undyed cotton by symbols devised by the cotton marketing board. See also Cotton Industry and Textiles . Bibliography Ellison, Thomas . The Cotton Trade of Great Britain . London, 1886 and 1968. Farnie, D. A. The English Cotton Industry and the World Market, 1815–1896 . Oxford, 1979. Provides a good description of the growth of the British cotton textile industry, as do Ellison (1886) and Scherer (1916). Fogel, Robert W. Without...

cotton

cotton   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Local and Family History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
168 words

... . Raw cotton originally came to Britain from the Levant into London, then during the second quarter of the 17th century it came from the East and West Indies. By the early 18th century American and West Indian cotton was being imported through Bristol, Lancaster, and Liverpool; after 1750 Liverpool became the leading port for this trade and Manchester became the chief market. By the end of the 18th century all the processes for making cotton goods had been brought into factories . The spinning process was the first to be mechanized. The early industry...

Cotton

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The Grove Encyclopedia of Materials and Techniques in Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,884 words

...the finest Indian painted cottons continued to be imported throughout the 18th century into Europe despite the restrictions, there was an increasing emphasis on the import of the raw fibre. Large factories were established in Lancashire for the production of cotton fabrics. Robert Peel, grandfather of the 19th-century prime minister, was a Lancashire cotton manufacturer who controlled spinning mills, weaving and cotton-printing factories. Lancashire cottons of all kinds dominated the European market for most of the 19th century. Cotton was also combined with...

Cotton

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Concise Oxford Dictionary of Family Names in Britain

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Names studies
Length:
58 words

... 1881: 7050; widespread in England: especially Staffs. English: locative name from any of numerous places named from Old English (æt) cotum ‘at the cottages or huts’, or sometimes possibly from a Middle English plural form of the same word ( coten ): Coton (Cambs), Far Cotton (Northants), Coatham (Durham, NR Yorks), Cotham (Notts), Cottam (Notts, ER...

cotton

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The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
664 words

... Raw cotton originally came to Britain from the Levant into London, then, during the second quarter of the 17th century, it came from the East and West Indies. By the early 18th century American and West Indian cotton was being imported through Bristol, Lancaster, and Liverpool; after 1750 Liverpool became the leading port for this trade and Manchester became the chief market. Eli Whitney's invention of the cotton gin was crucial in making the southern states of the United States the major producer of raw cotton. Lancashire had the advantage of coal ,...

Cotton

Cotton   Reference library

William G. Moseley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,837 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of cotton fiber until about 1840 . The growing capacity of British factories to process cotton meant that traders increasingly called on emerging centers of cotton production in the southern United States and the Caribbean. The use of slave labor in the Americas meant that cotton could be produced more cheaply than in India. Eli Whitney's cotton gin (which allowed growers to clean an inland variety of short-staple cotton more efficiently) vastly increased cotton production in the United States. These two factors, coupled with an American cotton variety...

cotton

cotton ([Sp])   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
37 words

... [Sp] Bushy plant ( Gossypinum hirsutum ) with seeds covered in a soft white fibrous substance (lint) that can be made into thread. Native to Mesoamerica and parts of South America. Domesticated by c .4300 bc...

cotton

cotton   Reference library

Stephanie Mary Dalley

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
173 words

... is first attested from excavations in the Indus valley for the early second millennium bc ; cotton plants were imported into Assyria by Sennacherib c. 700 bc , who attempted to grow them at Nineveh . Herodotus 3. 106 mentions cotton as an Indian crop. It spread during Hellenistic times into Ethiopia , Nubia and Upper Egypt , and perhaps later into Indo-China. Early fibres seem to come from the tree Gossipium arboreum rather than the bush Gossipium herbaceum . The word cotton may perhaps be derived from West Semitic ktn , at first ‘tunic’ in...

Cotton

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The Grove Encyclopedia of Decorative Arts

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,566 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of cotton was used to great effect by William Morris in the 19th century. Even after American Independence ( 1776 ), English traders continued to export their cottons, thus discouraging the Americans from setting up their own cotton-printing industries. Only in the later 19th century were American cotton printers able to compete with the English. In France it became legal to print cottons in 1759 . A number of factories were set up in various regions, notably in Rouen, Nantes and Jouy-en-Josas. It is not always easy to identify a cotton printed in...

cotton

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The Oxford Companion to Irish History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
222 words

... manufacture, initially an ancillary activity to linen , became firmly established in the last decades of the 18th century. Cotton was fashionable and its rapidly declining price widened its market base. The Irish parliament was also eager to promote it, putting heavy duties on British imports from the early 1780s and making grants to Irish producers. From the 1780s cotton mills with the latest spinning technology were built in Dublin , Cork , Belfast , and a few rural locations; Dublin was the most important centre until after the turn of the century,...

Cotton

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John BAFFES

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
2,404 words

...and four African cotton producers (Benin, Burkina Faso, Chad, and Mali) argued that cotton subsidies caused world cotton prices to decline and reduced their export revenues. At the time, the value of global cotton output averaged between $25 and $30 billion, and the United States (which accounts for one-third of world cotton exports) supported its cotton industry to the tune of $2 to $4 billion annually ( ICAC 2010 ). The EU provided considerable support to its cottons sector as well—around $1 billion annually—though applied to much less cotton and hence with...

Cotton

Cotton   Reference library

Dictionary of American Family Names (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Names studies
Length:
110 words

... US frequency (2010): 33374 1 English: habitational name from any of numerous places called from Old English (æt) cotum (dative plural of cot ) ‘at the cottages or huts’ (or sometimes possibly from a Middle English plural, coten ). Examples include Coton (Cambridgeshire, Northamptonshire, Staffordshire), Cottam (East Yorkshire, Lancashire, Nottinghamshire), and Cotham (Nottinghamshire). Particularly common in Staffordshire. 2 French: from a pet form of the personal name Nicolas (see Nicholas ), derived via Nicot , or of the personal name ...

cotton gin

cotton gin   Quick reference

Mike Allaby

Dictionary Plus Science and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology
Length:
13 words

... gin A machine that separates the seeds from cotton fibres. Mike...

cotton wool

cotton wool   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Idioms (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Language reference
Length:
11 words

... cotton wool wrap someone in cotton wool be over-protective towards ...

Cotton-tail

Cotton-tail   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
8 words

...Cotton-tail Rabbit in stories by Beatrix Potter ....

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