Update
The Oxford Biblical Studies Online and Oxford Islamic Studies Online have retired. Content you previously purchased on Oxford Biblical Studies Online or Oxford Islamic Studies Online has now moved to Oxford Reference, Oxford Handbooks Online, Oxford Scholarship Online, or What Everyone Needs to Know®. For information on how to continue to view articles visit the subscriber services page.
Dismiss

You are looking at 1-20 of 1,226 entries  for:

  • All: contracts Clause x
clear all

View:

Overview

contracts Clause

Subject: Law

The Contracts Clause is an important part of the history of property rights in America. Under the Articles of Confederation (1781–1789), the newly independent states responded to the ...

Contracts Clause

Contracts Clause   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
1,158 words

...century, the Supreme Court shifted the focus of property protection from the Contracts Clause to the Fifth and Fourteenth amendments’ due process clauses. The shift to due process breached a longstanding limitation of property protection inherent in the Contracts Clause. Because the Contracts Clause protected contracts from “impairment,” it never protected contractual undertakings from laws enacted before the contracts’ formation. In contrast, under the due process clauses, the Court voided legislation regardless of whether the law preexisted or postdated...

Contracts Clause

Contracts Clause   Reference library

Douglas W. Kmiec

The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Law
Length:
1,046 words

... Clause Article I, section 10, clause 1 of the Constitution provides that “No State shall … pass any Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts.” On its face an absolute limitation on state power, the meaning of this clause has varied greatly in Supreme Court interpretation. In the early years of the nation, the Contracts Clause dominated the Supreme Court's case docket, and the Court's interpretations constrained state action , especially actions seeking to redistribute wealth. In modern times, the Court has all but forgotten the clause as a...

contracts Clause

contracts Clause  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
The Contracts Clause is an important part of the history of property rights in America. Under the Articles of Confederation (1781–1789), the newly independent states responded to the economic ...
contract clause

contract clause   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
173 words

... clause Article 1, Section 10, of the U.S. Constitution says, “No State shall … pass any … Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts.” This contract clause prohibits any state government from passing a law that would interfere with contracts made by citizens, either by weakening the obligations assumed by parties to a contract or by making a contract difficult to enforce. The Supreme Court's decisions in Fletcher v . Peck ( 1810 ) and Dartmouth College v . Woodward ( 1819 ) were landmark decisions that used the contract clause to uphold the sanctity...

entire contract clause

entire contract clause   Reference library

Australian Law Dictionary (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Law
Length:
57 words

...entire contract clause (or entire agreement clause or integration clause ) A clause in a written document stating that the entire agreement between the parties is contained in the document. If valid, the clause has the legal effect of excluding all evidence extrinsic to the document in proof of the terms of the contract. See also extrinsic material...

entire contract clause

entire contract clause  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
A clause in a written document stating that the entire agreement between the parties is contained in the document. If valid, the clause has the legal effect of excluding all ...
Tobit

Tobit   Reference library

Joseph A. Fitzmyer, SJ and Joseph A. Fitzmyer, SJ

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
7,111 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...11 , ‘seven … kinsmen’, see 3:15 ; ‘she is your sister’, see comment on 5:21 . v. 12 , ‘gave her to Tobias’, in marriage. v. 13 , ‘marriage contract’, this ancient Jewish custom is not mentioned in the OT. For an example, see the Elephantine contract of Mibṭaḥiah's marriage ( Cowley 1923 : 44 §15; ANET 222 ): ‘She is my wife, and I am her husband from this day forever’; ‘to which he affixed his seal’, this clause is omitted in G 1 , abridged in G 11 , but read in VL at the end of the verse; 4QTob a has preserved one word of it, wḥtm , ‘and he sealed...

Amos

Amos   Reference library

Jennifer M. Dines and Jennifer M. Dines

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
10,215 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...which itself is devastated recurs elsewhere (esp. 9:4; cf. Isa 6:11–13 ). ( 1:9–10 ) Tyre Of the Phoenician cities, only Tyre is mentioned; by implication all are probably covered. The crime resembles Gaza's; in addition, some contract or treaty has been broken; the word bĕrît (covenant) occurs, but not theologically of a ‘contract’ between God and Israel. The deportees are not explicitly Israelites, though Judeans might remember dealings between Solomon and Hiram ( 1 Kings 5; 9:11–14 ). Historically, Tyre survived until Alexander's conquest. If this is ex...

Hebrews

Hebrews   Reference library

Harold W. Attridge and Harold W. Attridge

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
22,421 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...tabernacle’ of v. 6 . The translation of the NRSV suggests that the ‘present time’ is a time of unfulfilment, the time ‘during which’ ( kath᾽ hen ) ineffective sacrifices are being offered. The translation thus makes the subordinate clause temporal, defining the ‘present’. It should, instead, be rendered as a relative clause, translated ‘according to which’, and construed as modifying the ‘symbol’, i.e. the tabernacle. For our author, the ‘present time’ is not dominated by the old cult, but by Christ's sacrifice. The tabernacle prefigures inadequately what...

The Four Gospels in Synopsis

The Four Gospels in Synopsis   Reference library

Henry Wansbrough

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
30,113 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Narrative Style. A whole series of features in Mark may be connected to his distinctively oral style of storytelling. On the grammatical level these include parataxis instead of syntaxis (a series of parallel short sentences, where a more literary writer might use subordinate clauses) and the frequent historical present (which often disappears in translation, and is often ‘corrected’ by Matthew and Luke). On a more stylistic level Markan duality has been thoroughly documented: Mark's thought often proceeds by two steps, the second frequently defining and...

Exodus

Exodus   Reference library

Walter Houston and Walter Houston

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
30,486 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...(But Phillips 1970 regards it as Israel's fundamental law, and many scholars connect it with the form of ancient treaties: see Mendenhall 1992 a .) If the setting in life of this type of text is not legal, what is it? Material of this kind, with its brief memorable clauses, could be designed as an aid to religious instruction in the home ( Albertz 1994 : 214–16 ). But this text goes beyond that function. With YHWH's self-announcement and personal demand for exclusive loyalty, vv. 2–6 belong nowhere else but in this present setting of...

Genesis

Genesis   Reference library

R. N. Whybray and R. N. Whybray

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
35,219 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Israel that had suffered devastation and exile from its land could hardly fail to get the message. It is hardly correct to call ch. 2 a second and alternative creation story. The reference to the creation of the world only occupies 2:4 b –6 , and is expressed in a subordinate clause: ‘In the day when…’. It is introduced in order to provide a setting for the main story. It belongs to a different tradition from that of ch. 1 with its Mesopotamian perspective—that of Palestine, where rain ( 2:5 ) is vitally important for the existence of plant and animal...

Luke

Luke   Reference library

Eric Franklin and Eric Franklin

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
46,452 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...It is not certain that this passage describes an ascension of Jesus, for the two crucial clauses that would make it so are omitted from some MSS. That Jesus ‘was carried up into heaven’ and that the disciples ‘worshipped him’ are not included in a number of versions. After a long period when they were described as additions, introduced to bring the gospel to a firm conclusion, the majority of commentators now opt for their integrity. They believe that the two clauses were omitted because, with their inclusion, the gospel passage seemed to be at variance with...

A Land Divided: Judah and Israel from the Death of Solomon to the Fall of Samaria

A Land Divided: Judah and Israel from the Death of Solomon to the Fall of Samaria   Reference library

Edward F. Campbell Jr.

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
19,373 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...bears his name, was the prophetic announcer. The highly theological assessment in 14.26–27 combines with the cry and the hope of Amos and Hosea. The DH also claims that Jeroboam “recovered for Israel Damascus and Hamath, which had belonged to Judah.” The first clause is best understood as recovery of commercial access and treaty relationship with the two Syrian states. The second claim, about Judah, remains puzzling. Azariah/Uzziah (it is not clear which was the throne name and which the given name) also receives seven verses from...

Leviticus

Leviticus   Reference library

Lester L. Grabbe and Lester L. Grabbe

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
22,756 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...dead ( v. 31 ); show respect for the elderly ( v. 32 ); love the resident alien ( vv. 33–4 ); have honest scales and measures ( vv. 35–6 ). Many of these are what we might call civil law, but here they are given a religious sanction and thus brought under cultic law. The motive clause, ‘(for) I am YHWH’, occurs frequently. The laws proper ( vv. 3–36 ) are not of a piece because there is some overlap between the various ones. For example, the sabbath is mentioned twice ( vv. 3, 30 ). It has been noted that vv. 11–18 have a common vocabulary in ‘friend’ (...

Essay with Commentary on Post-Biblical Jewish Literature

Essay with Commentary on Post-Biblical Jewish Literature   Reference library

Philip S. Alexander

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
48,106 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...been as true of the Pentateuch as of any other legal text, even of those parts which are reasonably full and clear. With the passage of time much of this interpretation would have become traditional: lawyers and judges would have reached a consensus as to how certain terms and clauses were to be understood, though, as we shall see, there was always room for disagreement. Ancient law tended to be conservative: innovation was not encouraged, at least in the practice of the law. There must have been a body of traditional interpretation which stood side by side...

Punctuation

Punctuation   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
7,703 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Convicted in Extortion Case,” N.Y. Times , 30 Apr. 2008 , at B3. The serial comma would prevent the miscue . Second, the comma separates coordinated main clauses—e.g.: “Cars will turn here[,] and coaches will go straight.” There are two exceptions: (1) when the main clauses are closely linked <Do as I tell you [no comma] and you won't regret it> ; and (2) when the subject of the second independent clause, being the same as in the first, is not repeated <Policies that help prevent crime are often better for the public [no comma] and are closer to the ideal...

Phrasal Adjectives

Phrasal Adjectives   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
2,154 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...training long-run costs long-standing problems long-term care loose-knit arrangement low-cost sellers lower-paying job make-believe world marginal-revenue curve market-clearing level market-definition cases market-share trends merger-to-monopoly movement most-favored-nation clause narrow-minded and out-of-date productions never-published introductory essay new-economy industries nineteenth-century judge no-distribution constraint no-fault divorce not-for-profit firms now-classic treatise odd-numbered license plates office-supply stores one-way window...

Concord

Concord   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
1,925 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Ed Good, who trains technical writers, calls this “[t]he biggest grammar mistake in the United States.” C. Edward Good , A Grammar Book for You and I . . . Oops, Me! 301 ( 2002 ). For more on this error, see there is (b) . The agreement mistake can also come up in relative clauses—e.g.: “‘We must not be silent,’ said German Chancellor Angela Merkel at a memorial ceremony in Berlin's renovated Rykestrasse synagogue, one of the few that was [read were ] not burned down that night by the Nazis . . . .” Bret Stephens , “‘Tolerance’ Is Not the Lesson of...

Miscues

Miscues   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
1,911 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...together—because they frequently do go together—but in the particular instance aren't intended to. This commonly occurs in two ways. First, a word appearing late in a passage sometimes seems to echo an earlier word to which it really has no relation. For example, in the final clause of the following passage, barred suggests some relation to disbarred in the opening sentence: “In 1948 he was found guilty of unprofessional conduct and disbarred for three years by a federal judge. The decision was appealed and reversed three years later. In 1958 ...

View: