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contestable market

A market that has very low barriers to entry and exit; in a perfectly contestable market entry and exit are costless. In such a market potential as well as actual competition is a ...

contestable market

contestable market   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Economics (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
92 words

...contestable market A market that has very low barriers to entry and exit; in a perfectly contestable market entry and exit are costless. In such a market potential as well as actual competition is a constraint on what the incumbent producers can charge, so that a competitive price is observed even when there is only one seller. Examples of highly contestable markets include low-cost airlines, internet service providers, electricity and gas suppliers, etc. In practice the existence of at least some sunk costs means that no markets are perfectly contestable...

contestable market

contestable market  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A market that has very low barriers to entry and exit; in a perfectly contestable market entry and exit are costless. In such a market potential as well as actual competition is a constraint on what ...
contestable markets

contestable markets  

Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference

... markets Markets in which the potential entry of other firms exercises strong competitive pressures on the behavior of incumbents. In such a market, it makes little difference whether monopolistic or oligopolistic structures exist: it is the competition from potential entrants rather than competition among active suppliers that effectively constrains the equilibrium behavior of the producing firms. The characteristics of such a market are free entry and costless exit by entrepreneurs who face no disadvantages vis-à-vis the incumbents. Perfectly...

20c The History of the Book in Britain from 1914

20c The History of the Book in Britain from 1914   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,991 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...mores and publication practices, although the controversies surrounding Rushdie’s The * Satanic Verses in the 1980s and 1990s demonstrated that freedom of speech remained contested. In a different vein, *Dent began production of the first *Everyman’s Library books (themselves modelled on earlier reprint series) in the opening decade of the century. These were marketed for the growing population of newly literate readers, which Penguin also sought in the 1940s with its *Penguin Classics . Another instance of change is the global phenomenon of...

Land

Land   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,951 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and practical contests. Present-day historical consensus is that the *agricultural revolution was a much longer process than earlier scholars had thought, though perhaps even more thoroughly revolutionary than has been acknowledged. Agrarian capitalism, which had developed through a centuries-long process of agricultural alteration, reached both maturity and crisis in the early decades of the nineteenth century. It provided the material foundation for a massive increase in *population as well as a consolidated national market from which to launch...

Class

Class   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,846 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...contested as particularly glittering prizes. As the Marxist philosopher V. N. Volosinov wrote in 1929 , ‘different classes will use one and the same language. As a result, differently oriented accents intersect in every ideological sign. Sign becomes an arena of the class struggle.’ A substantial proportion of the British population struggled to form new, or re-form old, collective identities at a time when the country was experiencing large changes in agrarian, industrial, and commercial structures and processes. This essay will spotlight such contests,...

Poverty

Poverty   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,179 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...The history of poverty cannot be written simply by establishing a measure or threshold of deprivation and looking for all who fell beneath it, since it is also a history of shifting definitions and perspective. The terms ‘poverty’ and ‘poor’ were particularly dense and highly contested concepts in this period. They described a social and economic situation which sometimes required charity or statutory relief, but they were also terms of political analysis which conveyed specific values, attitudes, and explanations of how society in general was composed and...

Theatre

Theatre   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,088 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...legitimate forms. The ensuing contest between the patent theatres and the minors for rights to the spoken drama had significant ramifications: it indicated the declining political and cultural authority of the fashionable ‘town’, identified with Westminster and the West End of the city, and the rise of the more socially and politically heterogeneous metropolis. It also reflected the increasing tensions between the theatre's traditional ideological role as a representative assembly, a mirror of society, and the demands of the market-place. Both sides in the...

Pericles

Pericles   Reference library

Sonia Massai and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,543 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...naive style and manner, he thought Pericles must have been Shakespeare’s first play. This view was even endorsed by Malone , who dated the play c. 1592 . Because Pericles abounds in what Neoclassical critics regarded as serious formal flaws, its authorship was regularly contested. Rowe included it in his 1709 edition of Shakespeare’s Complete Works , but Pope , Theobald , Warburton , Dr Johnson , Capell , and others omitted it from the canon . Malone, who believed that Shakespeare wrote at least some parts of the play, reintroduced it in his ...

Novels

Novels   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,137 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...to raise some of the key aesthetic and formal questions facing novelists in this period. The novel was not an automatically propitious genre for authors during our time. At the start of the period, the Preface to Frances *Burney 's widely popular Evelina ( 1778 ) records and contests the lowly rank of the novel in the republic of letters; and many novelists might have recognized themselves as the ‘injured body’ vehemently defended by Jane *Austen in chapter 5 of Northanger Abbey ( 1818 ). It was common to place the novel as the lowest of literary forms:...

19 The Electronic Book

19 The Electronic Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,019 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...than an 800K diskette. By 1992 , the first e-book titles began to arrive on CD-ROM, again as freeware, but intended to encourage consumers to purchase computers with new CD-ROM drives. By 1993 , 4 million CD-ROM players had been sold in the US market; large publishers, which had hesitated to enter the market as long as e-books were diskette-based and limited in size, now jumped in. CD-ROM book sales reached nearly $1 billion by 1994 , with more than 8,000 titles, ranging from the Bible to reference and business books, and from fiction to children’s...

Agricultural History

Agricultural History   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,344 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...13th century the documentary evidence is sufficient to enable historians to study regions and to observe changes in their economy over time. A recent reappraisal has recognized the role of the market in medieval agriculture. Farmers were partly restricted by soils, climate , manorial structure, and field systems, but by the second half of the 13th century market forces were influencing the choice of crops and livestock and decisions on the intensity of production. The growth of London and, to a less extent, the regional capitals, together with the...

Painting

Painting   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,778 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and took in the ensemble of pictures as a whole. Paintings flit in and out of view, and are often discussed with a free-wheeling disregard for the decorous proprieties of Academic taste. In this process, the published pronouncements of a painter- theorist like Reynolds became contested by an alternative form of discourse, generated from outside Somerset House. The irreverent language of pamphlets like The Royal Academicians: a Farce, of 1786 by Anthony Pasquin [ see John Williams ], or Lyric Odes to the Royal Academicians ( 1782–5 ) by Peter Pindar [...

Popular Culture

Popular Culture   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,520 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...were being marketed as objects of nostalgic consumption. Influential antiquarian works like *Brand 's Popular Antiquities ( 1777 ) and *Strutt 's Sports and Pastimes of the People of England ( 1801 ) triggered a flourishing élite interest in popular festivities, folk legends, and ritual—British counterparts of the pioneering work on German folklore and national character conducted in the 1770s and 1780s by Johann Gottfried Herder ( 1744–1803 ). An article by Clare in William Hone's Everyday Book of 1826 , aimed at a more popular market, expressed...

Irish Local and Family History

Irish Local and Family History   Quick reference

Kevin Whelan

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,945 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...has detailed listings of the activities of local societies, and a sources section designed for local historians. As tourism became increasingly a major industry and as heritage was recognized and marketed as a crucial component of Ireland's appeal, local history, heritage, and genealogy were no longer seen as trivial pursuits by policy‐makers, but as marketable resources. As unemployment soared in the 1980s, schemes were developed which trained young people in computer skills by processing historical and genealogical data. This created a more positive...

41 The History of the Book in Korea

41 The History of the Book in Korea   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,059 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...as the colonizers attempted to shape Korean social and cultural identity in ways that supported Japanese imperialist ambitions. For a time, the future of Korean as a medium of formal communication and education was uncertain. It was against this background of struggle and contested nationhood that modern Korea’s influential newspaper and book publishing companies were founded. Writers, academic societies, and newspapers all had to contend with military control and close *censorship . Resentment against Japan continues to colour both of the modern Korean...

Prose

Prose   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,185 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...that to be ignored by the new quarterly reviews was a telling sign of exclusion from the higher reaches of the literary market-place. The curious division of ideological labour between these leading quarterlies prompted the later Westminster Review ( 1824 ) to call their professed Whig and Tory alignments a mask for a joint advocacy of aristocratic interests. But the class content of the quarterly reviews was ambiguous. They contested with each other and with the Westminster's *utilitarian intellectuals for leadership of the emerging professional class...

14 Printed Ephemera

14 Printed Ephemera   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,034 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...market of the next century. The Daily Mail became the first *Fleet Street paper to achieve circulation of a million copies for a single issue. At the same time, the newspaper moved beyond the orbit of the relatively conventional and sluggish book trade into its own industrial system. It was a sign of the times when, in 1937 , the book trade’s much-venerated business organization was retitled the Worshipful Company of Stationers and Newspaper Makers. Despite this remarkable growth in output, the status and importance of the newspaper remained contested...

18 Theories of Text, Editorial Theory, and Textual Criticism

18 Theories of Text, Editorial Theory, and Textual Criticism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,963 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...One controversial exemplar has been George Kane and E. Talbot Donaldson ’s edition of the B-text of Piers Plowman ( 1975 ), in which the editors insistently privileged the interpretation of variants based on internal evidence, rather than prior recension. Another, yet more contested, has been *Gabler ’s edition of Joyce’s * Ulysses ( 1984 ), in which a clean ‘reading’ text was printed in parallel with a *synoptic text and its apparatus, which documented in detail the diachronic processes of Joyce’s alterations. The necessity of extensive textual...

Phrasal Adjectives

Phrasal Adjectives   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
2,154 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

..., the convention is to drop the hyphen—e.g.: “With the hotly-contested [read hotly contested ] Second Congressional District primary six days away, supporters of Sen. Bob Smith gathered last night just as curious about a race two years away and a candidate who hasn't said yet whether he's running.” M.L. Elrick , “Kemp Coy on Plans for 1996 ,” Concord Monitor , 8 Sept. 1994 , at B1. But if the -ly adverb is part of a longer phrase, then the hyphen is mandatory ( the not-so-hotly-contested race ). Meanwhile, be sure not to confuse adjectives ending in ...

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