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Overview

computer

Any device capable of carrying out a sequence of operations in a defined manner. The definition of the operations is called the program. An analog computer performs computations by ...

computer

computer   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Computer Science (7 ed.)

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Current Version:
2016

... A device or system that is capable of carrying out a sequence of operations in a distinctly and explicitly defined manner. The operations are frequently numerical computations or data manipulations but also include input/output; the operations within the sequence may depend on particular data values. The definition of the sequence is called the program. A computer can have either a stored program or wired program. A stored program may exist in an alterable ( read/write or RAM ) memory or in a nonalterable ( ROM ) memory. Today, the term ‘computer’...

neural computer

neural computer   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Computer Science (7 ed.)

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Current Version:
2016

...computer A computer system based on a neural network...

parallel computer

parallel computer   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Computer Science (7 ed.)

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Current Version:
2016

...computer A computer that is capable of parallel processing...

computer graphics

computer graphics   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Computer Science (7 ed.)

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Current Version:
2016

... graphics The creation of, manipulation of, analysis of, and interaction with pictorial representations of objects and data using computers. See feature Computer graphics...

hybrid computer

hybrid computer   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Computer Science (7 ed.)

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Current Version:
2016

...computer A computer (system) that contains both a digital and an analogue computer. The digital computer usually serves as the controller and provides logical operations; the analogue computer normally serves as a solver of differential...

host computer

host computer   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Computer Science (7 ed.)

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Current Version:
2016

...computer ( host ) 1. A computer that is attached to a network and provides services other than simply acting as a store and forward processor or communication switch. Host computers range in size from small microcomputers to large time-sharing or batch mainframes. Many networks have a hierarchical structure, with a communication subnetwork providing packet switching services for host computers to support time-sharing, remote job entry, etc. A host computer at one level of a hierarchy may function as a packet or message switch at another. 2. A...

computer fraud

computer fraud   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Computer Science (7 ed.)

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Current Version:
2016

... fraud Any technique aimed at manipulating information within a computer system for the purpose of illicit, usually financial,...

computer family

computer family   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Computer Science (7 ed.)

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Current Version:
2016

... family A group of (digital) computers that are either successive generations of a particular computer system or versions of a single generation that differ in cost, speed, and/or optional features. They will tend to have similar but perhaps not identical architectures...

embedded computer

embedded computer   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Computer Science (7 ed.)

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2016

...computer Any computer used as a component in a device whose prime function is not that of a computer. One example is a weapons-guidance system. Another is a computer-controlled blood analyser that uses a computer to control various tests that are run on blood in order to produce an integrated printout of all test results. Many vehicles and domestic products now contain embedded computers...

analogue computer

analogue computer   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Computer Science (7 ed.)

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...computer A computer that performs computations (such as summation, multiplication, integration, and other operations) by manipulating continuous physical variables that are analogues of the quantities being subjected to computation. The most commonly used physical variables are voltage and time. Some analogue computers use mechanical components: the physical variables become, for example, angular rotations and linear displacements. See also discrete and continuous systems...

computer games

computer games   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Computer Science (7 ed.)

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2016

... games Recreational computer programs. Computers have been used to play games from the very start, and as the computers have become more powerful and cheaper, the games have become more sophisticated, particularly in their appearance and sound. Much computer game playing is done on purpose-made computers called games consoles . Typically, games are controlled using a joystick or similar hand-held device. They are available on a variety of data media and can also be downloaded from the Internet . The serious side of games is in the algorithms...

personal computer

personal computer   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Computer Science (7 ed.)

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2016

...computer A general-purpose single-user microcomputer designed to be operated by one person at a time ( see also PC ). Personal computers are now extremely sophisticated machines with powerful processors, large-capacity disk storage, high-resolution colour-graphics systems, high-speed network interfaces, and many other options. In scientific, engineering, and business environments the personal computer has superseded the terminal connected to a time-sharing system, especially since communication ports and network connections allow transfers of data...

computer animation

computer animation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Computer Science (7 ed.)

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2016

... animation The introduction of the time dimension into computer graphics to manipulate objects and create the illusion of animated movement. Facial animation , for example, is aimed at modelling precisely the muscular structure and surface of the human face. Behavioural animation is based on the behaviour patterns of animals (birds flock for protection, fish swim in...

computer chess

computer chess   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Computer Science (7 ed.)

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2016

... chess The development of computer game playing methods to produce high-quality chess playing programs. Most programs are based on search techniques with sophisticated enhancements ( see minimax ). Theoretical work on search has benefited from computer‐chess experience—for example, through experiments on heuristics . Commercial and research systems of very high performance are now available. Particular interest has been taken in work at IBM to produce a chess-playing computer operating at the highest level. The computer known as Deep Thought ,...

computer power

computer power   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Computer Science (7 ed.)

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... power A figure-of-merit for a computer system, sometimes defined in terms of performing a specific set of computations. It is described/measured by a number of methods: cycle time , mips , flops , throughput , and the results of benchmarks are among the most common...

satellite computer

satellite computer   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Computer Science (7 ed.)

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2016

...computer A computer that forms part of a computing system but is generally much less capable than the mainframe. It is located at a distance from the main system and serves auxiliary functions such as remote data entry or printing. It is now often nearly synonymous with terminal...

computer logic

computer logic   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Computer Science (7 ed.)

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2016

... logic The basic organization, design, and wiring used to realize a particular computer architecture . Someone involved with computer logic is therefore concerned with the design of building blocks or components, both logical and physical, and with the logic design involved in realizing a particular set of machine-code instructions; this may include the provision of facilities such as microprogramming whereby the set of basic instructions can be...

IAS computer

IAS computer   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Computer Science (7 ed.)

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...computer The model for a class of computing machines designed by John von Neumann . The IAS (Institute for Advanced Study) machine was started at Princeton in 1946 and was completed in 1951 . This machine used electrostatic storage devices —cathode-ray tubes—as the main memory. Such tubes, called Williams tubes, could each store 1024 bits. Other computers modelled after the IAS computer included ORACLE, JOHNNIAC, ILLIAC I, MANIAC, and IBM...

palmtop computer

palmtop computer   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Computer Science (7 ed.)

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2016

...computer A very small computer that can be hand-held and carried in the pocket. Palmtops feature a small LCD screen and a compressed keyboard. Most models offer personal organizer, diary, address list, and calculator. Some models are programmable and can support file transfer to larger host computers. A palmtop is smaller than a subnotebook . Some models have PCMCIA slots, for interfacing external peripherals. Palmtops have been largely superseded by smartphones and the emergence of small touch-sensitive tablets such as the iPad...

laptop computer

laptop computer   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Computer Science (7 ed.)

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Current Version:
2016

...computer ( notebook ) A small personal computer that can be simply carried around by one person and used in transit from internal battery power. Laptops typically have all the features of a desktop model; the flat display screen folds over the keyboard when not in use. They are constructed from components chosen for their lightness, small size, and low power consumption. These tend to make laptops more expensive than their desktop equivalents. See also notebook , palmtop computer...

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