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competition and credit control

The subject of an important paper issued in 1971 by the Bank of England. It outlined a number of changes affecting the banking system and the means of controlling credit. From October 1971 ...

competition and credit control

competition and credit control   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Finance and Banking (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... and credit control The subject of an important paper issued in 1971 by the Bank of England . It outlined a number of changes affecting the banking system and the means of controlling credit. From October 1971 a new system of reserve requirements was implemented, the banks agreed to abandon collusion on setting interest rates, and the Bank of England changed its operations in the gilt-edged securities market. The main aim of these changes was to stimulate more active competition between the banks and to move towards greater reliance upon...

competition and credit control

competition and credit control   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Finance and Banking (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

... and credit control The subject of an important paper issued in 1971 by the Bank of England . It outlined a number of changes affecting the banking system and the means of controlling credit. From October 1971 a new system of reserve requirements was implemented, the banks agreed to abandon collusion on setting interest rates, and the Bank of England changed its operations in the gilt-edged securities market. The main aim of these changes was to stimulate more active competition between the banks and to move towards greater reliance upon interest...

competition and credit control

competition and credit control  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The subject of an important paper issued in 1971 by the Bank of England. It outlined a number of changes affecting the banking system and the means of controlling credit. From October 1971 a new ...
48 The History of the Book in America

48 The History of the Book in America   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
12,975 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...publications and to improve their terms of payment and credit. Distance often led to strained relations, and delayed shipments—and payments—were common. American retailers complained that wholesalers dumped unsaleable London books on the colonial market, or sent books they had not ordered. London wholesalers, moreover, did not typically give American printer-booksellers the same credit terms and discounts that English metropolitan and provincial retailers received. For all the American booksellers’ complaints, imports diversified their stock and connected...

12 The Economics of Print

12 The Economics of Print   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,040 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...of the 19 th century printed matter became ubiquitous—it was on hoardings in the street and on packaging in shops and homes ( see 14 ). Booksellers and *newsagents supplied a burgeoning number and variety of books, newspapers, and periodicals. This was the result of falling manufacturing costs, increased demand, and a freedom from the institutional and regulatory controls that had hitherto restricted access. The market for books expanded as the population grew and the proportion of adults able to read also increased. Market growth meant that, from the ...

37 The History of the Book in Sub-Saharan Africa

37 The History of the Book in Sub-Saharan Africa   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,157 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...the task of educating Africans for clerical work in the colonial administration, it soon ran writing competitions, and commissioned works in Hausa, encouraging book production in a roman script—which Ricard noted is called boko , from the English ‘book’, but (not accidentally) sounds like the Hausa for ‘trickery’ (Ricard, 58–9 ). Similar enabling work was continued by the Nigerian Northern Region Literature Agency (until 1959 ), the Hausa Language Board, and, after independence, the Northern Nigeria Publishing Corporation ( 1967 ). The state government in...

20b The History of the Book in Britain, 1801–1914

20b The History of the Book in Britain, 1801–1914   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,058 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...can be credited both to broad socio-economic forces and to specific technological and cultural changes. Religious and political ideals competed vigorously and prosperity increased unevenly. At the same time, the mechanical capacity of printing and bookbinding equipment improved, along with readers’ ability to illuminate their books or journals by something stronger than candlelight. As a society, Britain had been moderately pious, but people’s reading of bibles and *tracts increased significantly as a result of the evangelical publishing activities of the...

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,044 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...set up business in 1920 and opened bookshops in Calcutta, Bombay, and Allahabad which continue to operate. By the beginning of the 20 th century, print had become an integral part of the public sphere and thoroughly indigenous. The competition between traditional and modern knowledge systems was now firmly enacted in the arena of print. There was an enthusiastic collaboration between print and the rise of regional-language literatures, involving figures such as Subramaṇiya Bhārati, Rabindranath Tagore, *Fakirmohan Senāpati, and Munṣī Premcānd. The...

Phrasal Adjectives

Phrasal Adjectives   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
2,154 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...credit charge account electrical-equipment conspirators English-speaking people evil-minded aggressor exclusive-dealing contracts face-to-face meetings far-ranging and free-thinking eclecticism first-run motion pictures five-judge tribunal flesh-and-blood individuals foreign-sounding name for-profit firms French-lace smuggler full-blown cartel garden-variety exclusive-dealing case government-owned business hard-and-fast, cut-and-dried, open-and-shut issue hard-core sexual conduct hard-eyed view hard-to-read writing head-on collision head-to-head competition...

phratry

phratry  

Reference type:
Overview Page
In Greek states, groups with hereditary membership and probably normally associated with specific locality(ies). The members were ‘phrateres’, related to words which in other Indo‐European languages ...
banking

banking  

A system of trading in money which involved safeguarding deposits and making funds available for borrowers, banking developed in the Middle Ages in response to the growing need for credit in ...
credit cards

credit cards   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law
Length:
808 words

...the high interest charges on credit cards and it is alleged that credit cards earn excessive profits for issuers. The Competition Commission found that store credit cards generated such profits from 1999–2004 . Why should there be excessive profits in an apparently competitive industry? The answer, it is suggested, lies primarily in the consumer irrationality noted above: individuals wrongly estimate the likelihood that they will borrow on a card, or the likely extent of borrowing, when they obtain the card. Regulation of credit card contracts in the UK is...

Office of Fair Trading

Office of Fair Trading   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law
Length:
497 words

...of competition policy, giving the Office the primary role in monitoring competition regulation. It also gave the Office rule‐making and oversight responsibilities in relation to consumer protection along with limited enforcement powers where traders persisted in unfair trading conduct. Bringing together competition and consumer law responsibilities in one agency underlined the legislative objective of making markets work better for consumers. The creation of the Office was intended to provide continuity and expertise in the monitoring and ...

Cooperatives

Cooperatives   Reference library

Greg Patmore

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...credit unions. In 1978 , Congress established the federally funded National Cooperative Bank to provide cheap finance to cooperatives. With the support of the administration of Ronald Reagan, this bank was privatized in 1981 . Since the 1960s, though many retail cooperatives have collapsed in the face of competition from the profit sector, some survive by specifically focusing on organic foods and locally produced goods. Though the number of credit unions has also declined, credit unions have increased their membership. [ See also Cooperatives and...

Douglas, Clifford Hugh

Douglas, Clifford Hugh (1879–1952)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of British Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
1,962 words

...credit in its various forms can be combined to generate the goods and services required by the community, producers require finance to purchase raw materials, labour and machines. Such finance is forthcoming only through the incentive of positive profit expectations. Douglas argued that ‘financial institutions determine credit-issue and price-making. Although they possess the capacity to determine production and distribution, the mechanisms whereby they allocate resources lie beyond democratic control’. As an alternative, Douglas envisaged a network of local...

privatization

privatization   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
381 words

...were. Arguments from efficiency highlight the state's moral duty not to waste communal resources. Market competition reduces waste, whilst publicly run services are notoriously wasteful. So, it is argued, why not improve efficiency through privatizing, whilst giving credits to less advantaged citizens to purchase services? This, however, reduces benefits to market preferences, and efficiency to market efficiency. Market efficiency modifies the goods supplied. For efficient exchange on a market, benefits need clear boundaries, which, for example, are lacked by a...

Jenks, Jeremiah Whipple

Jenks, Jeremiah Whipple (1856–1929)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of American Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
1,526 words

...in a free market, and openly blames corrupt legislators for the problem. But nonetheless, this control, or attempted control, by the trusts of government strikes at the heart of Jenks's own view of society. The democratic social systems of the United States…seem to have developed a power of self-control and of self-direction in the individual citizen which can rarely be found elsewhere in the world. This power of self-direction is found to a remarkable extent often in local governments, and in individuals, especially in business men…competition in industry...

Eurodollar

Eurodollar   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
560 words

...Eurodollar . The “Euromarket” and the “Eurodollar” refer to the pool of unregulated and uncontrolled capital that emerged and grew rapidly over the course of the 1960s, first in dollars, and then, much later, in other currencies used for financial operations outside their national areas—first in Europe and then in many other offshore centers. This new pool took the form of deposits, credits, increasingly syndicated bank credits, and, later, of securitized instruments, Eurobonds and short-term promissory notes, called Euronotes. It would be misleading to think of...

Credit Market Regulation, Evolution of

Credit Market Regulation, Evolution of   Reference library

Mandar P. Oak

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...sector and how many rural branches a bank needs to open. In short, the BRA provides a regulatory framework that has helped consolidate much of the formal credit sector, that is the commercial and cooperative banking sector as well as many NBFCs, 2 under a unified authority. Social control over the banking sector was further consolidated following bank nationalizations in 1969 and again in 1980 . It is only recently (after 1991 ) that the RBI has begun the process of granting banks greater operational discretion and inviting private competition, both...

Borrowing and Credit, Women's: Contemporary and Historical Practice

Borrowing and Credit, Women's: Contemporary and Historical Practice   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
2,178 words

...Asef . Making Islam Democratic: Social Movements and the Post-Islamist Turn . Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2005. Deeb, Lara . An Enchanted Modern: Gender and Public Piety in Shi’i Lebanon . Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2006 Goetz, A. M. , and R. S. Gupta . “Who Takes the Credit? Gender, Power and Control over Loan Use in Rural Credit Programmes in Bangladesh.” World Development 24, no. 1 (1996): 45–63. Grace, Jo , and Adam Pain . “Rural Women's Livelihood: Their Position in the Agrarian Economy.” In Land of the...

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