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comparison group

The group with which study subjects are compared, a control group. A vague term that is preferably avoided.

Comparison Group

Comparison Group   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Epidemiology (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...Comparison Group Any group to which the index group is compared. 6 , 26 Usually synonymous with Control group . See also case series ; control ; group comparison ; standard population . ...

comparison group

comparison group   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...comparison group The group with which study subjects are compared, a control group. A vague term that is preferably avoided. ...

comparison group

comparison group  

The group with which study subjects are compared, a control group. A vague term that is preferably avoided.
Group Comparisons

Group Comparisons   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Epidemiology (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...Group Comparisons c omparisons that consist in contrasting what is observed in a group of people in the presence of exposure to what would have occurred had the group of interest not been exposed to the postulated cause. Differences in frequency of disease occurrence between groups can logically be interpreted as being caused by the exposure. 42 Integratedly with Population thinking , this is the main mode of knowledge acquisition in epidemiology. 1 , 2 , 3 , 5 , 6 , 9 , 24 , 25 , 26 , 38 , 39 , 40 , 41 , 63 , 85 , 101...

group comparisons

group comparisons   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...group comparisons Comparisons contrasting what is observed in a group of people in the presence of exposure to what the group would have experienced had it not been exposed to the postulated cause. Differences in frequency of disease occurrence between groups can logically be interpreted as being caused by the exposure. When valid methods of observation or experimentation are used and when properly integrated with population thinking , this is a main mode of knowledge acquisition in epidemiology; complemented by individual thinking , also common and...

between groups comparison

between groups comparison   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Business Research Methods

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
41 words

...groups comparison Experiment design with two or more groups in which each group is subjected to a different intervention ; or in the case of its simplest form, one group is the control group . See also classic...

10 Paper

10 Paper   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,008 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...must be treated with as much caution as any other mark in a sheet. The formal comparison of watermarks and countermarks can be performed on two levels. Superficial comparison requires the imagery and countermark information in the sheet under examination to agree with either a catalogue picture or other reference sheet of paper. For catalogue images, exact agreement is rarely possible, because most published images are low-quality reproductions. Detailed comparison requires the exact size, orientation, position relative to chain and laid lines and...

Local and Regional History: Modern Approaches

Local and Regional History: Modern Approaches   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,365 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Wrightson and David Levine , Poverty and Piety in an English Village: Terling, 1525–1700 ( 1979 ), a study of an Essex community. The concept of a ‘community’ has been attacked by sociologists on the grounds that its meaning varies too much to allow comparisons and because it implies an enclosed group unaffected by the wider world. Local historians, however, have always been well aware that the parish boundary, while defining a unit that can be studied in practical terms, did not restrict movement in and out of the parish. The questions of...

Central Government, Courts, and Taxation

Central Government, Courts, and Taxation   Quick reference

R. W. Hoyle

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
7,753 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...indeed, could not, administer programmes or policies: it dealt with individuals’ ( C. Emsley , ‘The Home Office and its Sources of Information and Investigation’, English Historical Review , 94 ( 1979 ), 532). Or, as Professor Eastwood has written, it monitored and advised. By comparison, in 1690 the excise establishment had 1 313 employees and by 1779 it had 5 778, but by 1783 this had been reduced to 4 910 ( J. Brewer , The Sinews of Power ( 1989 ), table 4.1). Other than its excise men, central government had no salaried officials in the counties. It...

2 The Sacred Book

2 The Sacred Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
9,978 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Sacred Book Carl Olson 1 Introduction 2 Formative Judaic tradition 3 Formative Christian tradition 4 Formative Islamic tradition 5 Formative Hindu tradition 6 Formative Buddhist tradition 7 Brief comparison of the five traditions 1 Introduction Adherents recognize a book as sacred in hindsight after compilers and editors have assembled its parts. A particular book is considered sacred when adherents acknowledge the authoritative nature of the source of the book, which they may believe to be divine or human. When a collection of messages is considered...

Music

Music   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,344 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... 1776 Britain's potential market for music and musicians was undoubtedly rich—probably more so than anywhere else—in the essential ingredients of purchasing power and leisure. Musicians were already becoming aware of the new possibilities, and were sometimes enterprising by comparison with their predecessors. However, their activities were still circumscribed by limitations of space, cost, and education, which in turn restricted the demand for each of four interlinked ‘products’: performances, instruments, lessons, and sheet music. Even in London, where...

Enlightenment

Enlightenment   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,794 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...London, too, played its part in disseminating Enlightenment: Scottish, Welsh, and Irish thinkers moved there to pursue careers, to find publishers and outlets for their writings, or to talk with philosophers who gathered in the capital city. All this helps to explain why, in comparison with the Continent, the Enlightenment in Britain began so early and moderately, providing the Continent with its subsequent heroes, Francis Bacon ( 1561–1626 ), John *Locke , and Isaac *Newton . While these figures had epitomized a changing attitude to knowledge by valuing...

6 The European Printing Revolution

6 The European Printing Revolution   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,082 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...medium- to long-term prospects in the small towns, villages, or isolated abbeys and university towns where they stopped to operate. Why some printers did not succeed in establishing themselves even in large centres is a question that has to be analysed case by case. Finally, a comparison may be drawn between the high level of mobility shown by the early printers and that of professions such as teachers and university professors, whose wandering habits were determined sometimes by their fame, sometimes by economic need. The unique socio-economic-cultural...

Popular Culture

Popular Culture   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,520 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...radical views on the subjects of enclosure and agricultural ‘improvement’ [ see *land, 16 ]. Other patrons like Mrs Emmerson and Lord Milton plied him with morally improving propaganda or sought to curtail his independence in exchange for subsidized accommodation. By comparison, Joanna Southcott experienced relatively slight pressures from patrons, in part because her moral values were largely compatible with the strenuous Evangelicalism of prominent women campaigners like Hannah *More . Middle-class widow Jane Townley and her assistant Ann...

Sensibility

Sensibility   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,039 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...a lower class still vulnerable to severe hardship [ see *poverty, 12 ]. So great was the divide that as early as 1710 the Spectator could recommend perceiving the miserable and hungry in London's streets as ‘a different species’, and aggrandize the pleasure of ‘a secret comparison’ between ‘ourselves and the person who suffers’. Journals such as the Spectator were an important part of a public culture which encouraged its new middle-class audience to pursue the cult and language of sensibility. This word and its cognates denoted the receptivity of the...

19 The Electronic Book

19 The Electronic Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,019 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...the distribution of print, so e-books may change how, what, when, and where material is read. Courtesy of Libresco.com when the proper coding language and syntax are applied, they can be formatted and designed to mirror the best print traditions and practices. Yet this very comparison with print models raises issues of technological dependence and transition; every new model of digital innovation for the book seems to look back to historical precedents from the age of the codex and early print. After Gutenberg’s revolution, the various forms of book...

The Antiquarian Tradition

The Antiquarian Tradition   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,837 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...publication of William Camden 's Britannia ( 1586 , rev. edns, 1587 , 1590 , 1594 , 1600 ). Written in Latin, as a conscious contribution to the wider world of European scholarship, it was principally concerned to show that Britain had a Roman heritage that could stand comparison with that of its Continental neighbours. Camden stated his aims as: ‘That I would restore antiquity to Britaine, and Britaine to…antiquity…that I would renew ancientrie, enlighten obscuritie, cleare doubts, and recall home Veritie by way of recovery.’ The classical heritage...

Scottish Local and Family History

Scottish Local and Family History   Quick reference

David moody

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,622 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...One consequence was, and continues to be, the huge compilations on the music, folklore, beliefs, and customs of the highlands in particular. Scots have always been enthusiastic encyclopaedists. The appeal of comparative studies has recently taken on a new form, with fruitful comparisons not of past and present, but of the experiences of underdogs, sharing notes with Ireland more often than not. L. M. Cullen and T. C. Smout , Comparative Aspects of Scottish and Irish Economic and Social History 1600–1900 ( 1977 ), has been followed by numerous other...

Design

Design   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,178 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...business to select and improve designs for carpets, curtains, and furniture based on classical precedent. It pointed out that in France artists did not think it degrading to produce patterns for manufacturers, and workers had access to art in public galleries. In Britain, by comparison, artisans and manufacturers had few opportunities to see art and, under the then system of *education [17] , could not be expected to ascend to higher sources of elegance. The fear of competition from French manufacturers provided the spur for the Parliamentary Select...

12 The Economics of Print

12 The Economics of Print   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,040 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...higher than their fellow workers in cotton factories, the building trade, and the shipbuilding and engineering industries—were by the 1880s at a similar level. Although there were wide geographical differences in the wages of union labour, non-union labour, and piece-work, a comparison of compositors’ earnings with Wood’s calculation of the mean wage of the period shows that compositors’ wages were falling relative to those of other wage earners. Rates of pay and employment levels varied considerably from county to county, causing concern among the...

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