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community

Generally, any grouping of populations of different organisms that are found living together in a particular environment; essentially, the biotic component of an ecosystem. The organisms ...

community

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A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

... ( ecological community ) A group of plant and animal populations that live together in a given area, are adapted to local environmental conditions, and interact with each other. See also climax community...

community

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A Dictionary of Biology (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
72 words

...community A naturally occurring assemblage of plant and animal species living within a defined area or habitat. Communities are named after one of their dominant species (e.g. a pine community) or the major physical characteristics of the area (e.g. a freshwater pond community). Members of a community interact in various ways (e.g. through food chains and competition ). Large communities may be divided into smaller component communities. See association...

community

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
44 words

... See speech community . Also applied, in pretentious imitation of the social sciences, to any set of people who have some feature or features in common. It may be important, however, to ask if such a set forms a community in any real...

community

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
49 words

... In ecology , naturally occurring group of plants or animals living within a particular habitat . A community in a particular ecosystem is interdependent in many ways, such as the food chain . During ecological succession , the structure of a community is constantly shifting until a stable, climax community is...

community

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A Dictionary of Geology and Earth Sciences (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

... In ecology, a general term applied to any grouping of populations of different organisms found living together in a particular environment; essentially, the biotic component of an ecosystem . The organisms interact (by competition, predation, mutualism, etc.) and give the community a structure. Globally, the climax communities characteristic of particular regional climates are called...

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The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science & Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007

... 1 Set of social relationships existing within a geographically defined area, or the area itself. 2 Relationships that exist on an abstract ideological or social level; for example, a community of marathon...

community

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A Dictionary of Zoology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
36 words

... Generally, any grouping of populations of different organisms that are found living together in a particular environment; essentially, the biotic component of an ecosystem . The organisms interact and give the community a...

community

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A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... A general term applied to any grouping of populations of different organisms found living together in a particular environment; essentially, the biotic component of an ecosystem . The organisms interact (by competition , predation , mutualism , etc.) and give the community a structure. Globally, the climax communities characteristic of particular regional climates are called biomes . Plant ecologists often use the term to cover merely the botanical components of a total biotic community. See also individualistic hypothesis...

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A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...community A group of people; e.g., a neighborhood, village, or municipal or rural region or a social group with a unifying common interest or trait, loosely organized into a recognizable unit; a vague but useful term. There is often a sense of belonging, mutual self-interest, and perhaps activism that may lead to collective community action on issues and problems of concern. Elected or otherwise identifiable community leader(s) may represent, advocate on behalf of, and decide issues of importance to the community when it interacts with other groups or...

community

community   Reference library

Paul Gilbert

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
79 words

... . Group of people living a common life through reciprocal relationships. Communities are contrasted with associations organized for specific purposes in accordance with enforceable rules. Thus there is controversy over whether social life is fundamentally communal or, as Hobbes thought, the product of an association to maintain order. More generally communitarians see individuals as embedded in communities, rather than the independent atoms that compose them. Prof. Paul Gilbert See also fraternity . W. Kymlicka , Liberalism, Community and Culture ...

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A Dictionary of Genetics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
21 words

... interacting populations of individuals belonging to different species and occupying a given region or a distinctive range of habitat...

community

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A Dictionary of Plant Sciences (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
81 words

... A general term applied to any grouping of populations of different organisms found living together in a particular environment; essentially, the biotic component of an ecosystem. The organisms interact (by competition , predation , mutualism , etc.) and give the community a structure. Globally, the climax communities characteristic of particular regional climates are called biomes . Plant ecologists often use the term to cover merely the botanical components of a total biotic community. See also individualistic hypothesis...

community

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A Dictionary of Law (10 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Law
Length:
98 words

... n. A local government area in Wales, as set out in the Local Government (Wales) Act 1994, consisting of a division of a county or a county borough and equivalent to an English civil parish. All communities have meetings and many have an elected community council, which is a local authority with a number of minor functions (e.g. the provision of allotments, bus shelters, and recreation grounds). A community council may by resolution call its area a town, itself a town council, and its chairman the town mayor, either in Welsh or in...

Community

Community   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,833 words

...It is not surprising that ‘community’ elicits controversy and debate. But that has not prevented its use in numerous discourses of contemporary politics such as ‘community crime prevention’, ‘care in the community’, ‘the international community’, ‘the community of communities’, ‘the gay community’ and so on. Arguably the term creates a lack of clarity in modern politics and the benefits of its invocation must be questioned. Of course, these disputes are played out in varying ways in different societies. In Australia ‘community’ is a central notion in...

community

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A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
282 words

...to form a community. Belonging to a community brings benefits of mutual aid and support in return for reciprocal sharing of time, effort, and broadly defined resources (e.g., money, knowledge). Interest in communities in human geography can be traced back to the Chicago School of urban sociology and the study of communities remains an important part of social, urban, and rural geography. See also communitarianism . Further reading Aitken, S. C. (1998), Family Fantasies and Community Space . Herbert, S. (2005), ‘The trapdoor of community’, Annals of...

Community

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A Concise Companion to the Jewish Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
173 words

... The Hebrew word tzibbur (from a root meaning ‘to gather’) is used both for the Jewish people as a whole and for a particular group of Jews organized as a community. Strife and contention were no strangers to the Jewish community ( see CONTROVERSIES ). Wherever there are two Jews, the wry saying has it, there are three different opinions. All the more reason why the Jewish teachers, often not averse to a good dose of controversy themselves, repeatedly stressed the importance of communal harmony and cohesion, especially when the community was attacked...

community

community ([De])   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
31 words

... [De] A general term in archaeology that is applied to the tangible remains of a group of people who together occupy a settlement or region at any one particular...

community

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Jonathan Bradbury

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
466 words

...relations inherent in community as something greater than the concerns and interests of each individual living in it added together, and as providing the basis for the longevity of a community. Liberals are reluctant to conceptualize community on the same elevated basis because of their commitment to individual freedom. Instead they see community as based on the freely chosen associations of individuals with common interests and needs. Such associations may be strongly locationally based. For example, ‘financial community’ suggests both a group of people who...

community

community   Reference library

Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
406 words

...Benedict Anderson 's influential concept of imagined community ( Imagined Communities , 1983 ) illustrates a different approach to the question. Anderson emphasizes the practices and technologies that permit the creation of affective bonds that extend beyond the face-to-face contact of traditional communities. Nationalism is his primary example—built, he argued, on a print culture that created a sense of common space and purpose in an otherwise dispersed, large-scale society. National communities, in other words, reproduce something of the affective...

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A Dictionary of Cultural Anthropology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
156 words

...was the ‘community study’, referring to research about a village or tribal level unit, considered then to be a basic unit of social life. In more recent years anthropologists have both studied and challenged the tendency to reify and romanticize the community, attending to the gap between symbolic constructions of community as unified and social processes rooted in differentiation and control. Further reading: Redfield, Robert (1960), The Little Community and Peasant Society and Culture...

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