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Overview

communitarianism

n. an approach to ethical problems that rejects excessive emphasis on the individual and focuses instead on social cohesion and community interests, arguing that every single ...

communitarianism

communitarianism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
131 words

... A way of life that is critical of a certain strand of liberalism and which places value on the benefits that individuals derive from being embedded in a community. Communitarians take issue with the idea that individual freedom is opposed to social relations, institutions, and customs. Rather than acting as a restraint to individual freedom, communitarians see the latter as enabling and enriching for individuals. ‘Mild’ communitarians emphasize the importance of social capital . ‘Strong’ communitarians emphasize the importance of shared cultural...

communitarianism

communitarianism n.   Quick reference

Concise Medical Dictionary (10 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
33 words

... n. an approach to ethics and politics that advocates a middle way between communism and liberalism, emphasizing family and community interests as well as individual autonomy , social responsibilities, and personal...

communitarianism

communitarianism   Reference library

Elizabeth Frazer

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
632 words

...been dubbed communitarian, on the other hand, have affirmed their commitment to the values of liberalism . Dr Elizabeth Frazer See also individualism . Shlomo Avineri and Avner de-Shalit (eds.), Individualism and Communitarianism (Oxford, 1992). Elizabeth Frazer and Nicola Lacey , The Politics of Community: A Feminist Critique of the Liberal–Communitarian Debate (Hemel Hempstead, 1993). S. Mulhall and A. Swift (eds.), Liberals and Communitarians , 2nd edn. (Oxford, 1996). Charles Taylor , ‘Cross Purposes: The Liberal Communitarian Debate’, in ...

communitarianism

communitarianism   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
993 words

... (eds), Communitarianism and Individualism (Oxford, 1992). Bell, D. , Communitarianism and Its Critics (Oxford, 1993). ——, ‘Communitarianism’, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy . Available from: http://www.plato.stanford.edu/entries/communitarianism ) [Accessed 20 September 2005]. Caney, S. , ‘Liberalism and Communitarianism: A Misconceived Debate’, Political Studies (June 1992), pp. 273–90. Christodoulides, Emilios A. (ed.), Communitarianism and Citizenship (Aldershot, 1998). Delaney, C. F. (ed.), The Libertarian-Communitarianism Debate:...

Communitarianism

Communitarianism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
626 words

... is a social philosophy that maintains that societal formulations of the good are both needed and legitimate. Communitarianism is often contrasted with classical liberalism , a philosophical position that holds each individual should formulate the good. Communitarians examine the ways shared conceptions of the good (values) are formed, transmitted, enforced, and justified. Hence their interest in communities (and moral dialogues within them), historically transmitted values and mores, and the societal units that transmit and enforce values such...

communitarianism

communitarianism   Reference library

Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
377 words

... A diverse current of political and social thought that emphasizes the social nature of the individual against the atomistic individualism of liberalism . Communitarianism argues for communally defined norms for politics and society rather than those based on the aggregation of individual preferences or interests ( see interest ). While communitarianism often looks back to premodern forms of social organization, its theoretical foundation was laid by the early nineteenth-century philosopher Georg Hegel , who argued, against Immanuel Kant and...

communitarianism

communitarianism   Quick reference

Andrew Reeve

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
249 words

... Advocacy of a social order in which individuals are bound together by common values that foster close communal bonds. A label used loosely to describe the ideas of a number of writers particularly critical of modern liberal political thought, because of the importance they attach to ‘ community ’. Hence an antagonism has been presented between communitarianism and liberalism, which may, however, be overdrawn. Frequently identified communitarians are Alasdair MacIntyre , Michael Sandel , Michael Walzer , and Charles Taylor . The fundamental...

communitarianism

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A Dictionary of Social Work and Social Care (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... The belief that contemporary social problems such as crime and social isolation stem from the interrelationship between the decline of supportive communities and the weakening of families within them. The ideas underpinning this belief came to prominence in the 1990s, mainly in the US, as a reaction against neo-liberalism , but have had a much wider influence. For example, Amitai Etzioni ( 1929– ), one of the main US proponents of communitarianism, advised New Labour after it came to power in 1997 . Communitarians favour policies that...

communitarianism

communitarianism   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law
Length:
809 words

...and correctness. Hostility to universal standards is a prominent communitarian theme in political and social philosophy—an area in which, more than any other, communitarian ideas have flourished. Here communitarianism began as a sharp criticism of liberal theorizing on justice and the person , put forward especially in the work of John Rawls . Contrary to Rawls' arguments, communitarians such as Alasdair McIntyre , Michael Sandel , Charles Taylor , and Michael Walzer have argued that it is not possible to locate universal principles that establish the...

Communitarianism

Communitarianism   Reference library

Carl J. Guarneri

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... Communitarianism is a social movement that emerged just before the term was coined in the 1840s. Like socialism, it elevated collective ideals and social cohesion over individual autonomy; unlike most socialists, however, communitarians believed that models of a godly or rational social order could be constructed in small collective settlements and that society as a whole could be perfected through their example. The communitarian worldview had its origins in Greek and Renaissance theories of ideal republics, Christian monastic practices, and...

communitarianism

communitarianism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sports Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
167 words

... A view that a social, public, and moral order ‘without Puritanism or oppression’ can be based upon shared values, the renewal of social bonds, and the reform of public life. This has been given wide international and political currency in the work of sociologist Amitai Etzioni in his The Spirit of Community ( 1994 ). Talking of how such a community might be realized, Etzioni turned to extracurricular activities (school games and team sports). An exclusive focus upon winning at the expense of an adherence to teamwork, camaraderie, and playing...

communitarianism

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A Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
76 words

... A model of political organization that stresses ties of affection, kinship, and a sense of common purpose and tradition, as opposed to the meagre morality of contractual ties entered into between a loose conglomeration of individuals. The contrast was originally offered by the German sociologist F. Tönnies ( 1855–1936 ) in his Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft ( 1887 , Engl. trs. published as Community and Association , 1955 , and Community and Society , 1957 ). See also common good...

Communitarianism

Communitarianism   Reference library

Amitai Etzioni

The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,645 words

... Communitarianism differs from liberalism (in the political theory sense of the term) in that communitarians hold that society should formulate shared conceptions of the good, while liberals hold that each person should make such determinations by himself or herself. Normative support for investment in basic research, whose benefits are often fifty years or more down the road, is a case in point. One cannot predict who will benefit, but such research is favored for the “common good”—so is the protection of the environment. (Economics refers to...

Communitarianism and Community

Communitarianism and Community   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,717 words

... and Community . Contemporary communitarianism is rooted in two sources: one negative, and one positive. The negative root of communitarianism is its disenchantment with—and subsequent sharp criticism of—aspects of modern human-rights-based societies. These criticisms focus on the conviction that there is a dark side to respecting individual human rights. This dark side deals with the glorification of the self at the expense of social connections to families and churches, neighborhoods and nations. This detachment, communitarians say, has led to...

communitarianism

communitarianism noun   Quick reference

New Oxford American Dictionary (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
90 words
communitarianism

communitarianism noun   Quick reference

Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
94 words
communitarianism

communitarianism  

Reference type:
Overview Page
n. an approach to ethical problems that rejects excessive emphasis on the individual and focuses instead on social cohesion and community interests, arguing that every single person is embedded ...
communitarian

communitarian   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
446 words

...towards it. In this way arguments in favour of (say) safer driving will succeed because they have moral force. Communitarians claim to have influenced the development of social policy in America (Etzioni was a policy adviser to the Clinton administrations) and Britain (where communitarian ideas found favour with New Labour). Community policing, for example, is a policy consistent with communitarian ideals. Critics have suggested that communitarian arguments are both vague and naïve. Who will pay for extended parental leave of absence from employment? What if...

Communitarian Ethics

Communitarian Ethics   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Epidemiology (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...Communitarian Ethics An approach to ethics emphasizing communal values, the Common Good , or social goals. Closely aligned with the cooperative virtues and a community’s shared understanding of life. Need not be pitted against individual rights. 117 , 118 , 248 , 249 ...

Communitarian Peace Experiments

Communitarian Peace Experiments   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
1,724 words

...life and set of values, thereby sowing the seeds of a future world without war. One of the proponents of this movement, Wilfred Wellock, depicted such communitarian experiments as manifestations of a politics of creative living, arguing that wars would cease not so much when people refused to fight but when they had learned to live nonviolently. Wellock died in 1972 , by which time a new wave of communitarian experimentation was under way, once again shaped by the belief that significant social change came about through the lifestyle politics of seeking to...

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