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common perpendicular

Let l 1 and l 2 be two straight lines in space that do not intersect and are not parallel. The common perpendicular of l 1 and l 2 is ...

Grid Plan

Grid Plan   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
390 words

...Plan . A common way for excavators to make easy reference to a specific location on an archaeological site is by using a grid. The meaning of any archaeological information, such as an excavated object or architectural remain, is derived largely from its context, and a grid helps to identify that location and context. To form a grid, an arbitrary system of intersecting perpendicular lines is imposed on a site. The lines are usually established according to magnetic directions, running north–south and east–west. A mid-point for the grid is often set at the...

Ras Ibn Hani

Ras Ibn Hani   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,533 words

...been nearly deserted before it was destroyed by heavy fire, early in the twelfth century bce apparently by “Sea Peoples” whose precise nature is a debated question. On a part of the ruins that was leveled, small dwellings were built bordered by perpendicular streets. The painted pottery recovered, of types common on Cyprus and in Palestine in the twelfth century, are considered to be the last development of Mycenaean pottery, suggesting that this settlement was founded by the very sackers of the Ugaritic city. Destructions and rebuilding phases alternate...

Writing Materials

Writing Materials   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
2,960 words
Illustration(s):
1

....] The chief, if not completely reliable, source for the preparation of the writing material is Pliny the Elder's Natural History (13.74–82). Fresh strips of pith were laid side by side on a flat surface, with their edges touching; more strips were laid on top of them, perpendicularly, again with their edges touching. They were then pressed together (and perhaps pounded with a mallet), and the plants' sap bonded them into a very smooth, white, flexible sheet that could be inscribed on both sides. Usually, the sheets were glued into rolls of twenty, with...

Analytical Techniques

Analytical Techniques   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
3,644 words

...is thus a typical method for species analysis. Many compounds exhibit typical infrared spectra that can be used as a “fingerprint.” Resonance raman spectroscopy ( RRS ) is a complementary technique to IRS in that the radiation scattered and partly reemitted in a direction perpendicular to that of the incident beam is measured. X-Ray Methods. When an element is irradiated with X-rays of appropriate wavelength, X-rays of different but smaller wavelength, characteristic of the element, are emitted. The underlying process is the displacement of an electron of...

Furniture and Furnishings

Furniture and Furnishings   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
10,489 words
Illustration(s):
7

... Malku's wife (Malku was an important Palmyrene) sits on a cathedra . From the end of the second century ce , a Palmyran relief shows the goddess Leto seated on a similar basket chair. The cathedra was also used as a litter for the wealthy. Two types of stools, one with perpendicular legs and a second with folding legs, are known from the classical Greek world and continued to be used commonly in the Roman period. One of the few existing examples of a Roman-period stool is represented by a wooden leg excavated at Rifeh, Egypt. A cross-legged stool with a...

Musical Instruments

Musical Instruments   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
7,514 words
Illustration(s):
3

...deep-relief terracotta plaques. The figures are naked but adorned with a wig or headcover and a disk (drum) is pressed against the chest with both hands (Rashid, 1984 , ills. 91–95); and as bell-shaped figures dressed in a long gown, beating the drum, which is in a position perpendicular to the body (Meyers, 1987 ). Preserved only in Israel/Palestine, there are more than forty items of the first type and some fifteen of the second extant. Mixed types appear on Cyprus and in Syria: pillar figurines with a disk pressed against the chest and figurines on votive...

Building Materials and Techniques

Building Materials and Techniques   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
17,911 words
Illustration(s):
10

...the use there of wooden posts. [See Beidha .] Wood has also been utilized in more complex structures. In orthogonal (right-angled) units, beams were used for roofing. The main beams were placed at intervals across the room and thinner branches were densely laid over and perpendicular to the beams. The top layer was made of mud or lime mortar. In many cases segments of the mortar, bearing the imprints of branches, are observable in the destruction deposits. Tree trunks were commonly used as columns to support the roof beams of large halls. Stone bases,...

Cities

Cities   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
19,325 words
Illustration(s):
5

...and beginning of the fourth centuries bce , was also enclosed by a city wall. One section, about 12 m long and 2.5 m wide, discovered on the east side of the city, was built of well-dressed local sandstone. The stones were shaped like bricks lying on their sides and were set perpendicular to the wall, like headers. At set intervals they were strengthened by piers of stretchers. At Tell el-Ḥesi, the remains of a wall that enclosed both the early and the later phases of the city were found. According to Bliss, its excavator, the north sides of the buildings of...

perpendicular style

perpendicular style   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
71 words

... style [De] A style of architecture found in Britain in the late 14th century ad through to the 16th century ad in which there is a strong emphasis on the vertical elements of construction and decoration. Pointed arches common in earlier centuries are flattened and arches and windows become framed by rectangular outlines. Towers of great height are added to ecclesiastical buildings and ceilings and roofs are often richly...

Death and Burial in the Jewish Diaspora

Death and Burial in the Jewish Diaspora   Reference library

Karen B. Stern

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
6,303 words
Illustration(s):
1

...(Horbury and Noy, 1992 , no. 14, p. 21). In Leontopolis (Tell-el-Yehudieh) the local necropolis contained tombs marked with menorahs and biblical names. Steps facilitated access to subterranean passageways leading to a square central chamber where loculus tombs were cut perpendicularly into the rock. Bricks were placed under the heads of many of the dead. Inscribed stelae crowned with pediments were also discovered inside the complex. Several local inscriptions, as well as those from Demerdash, included metrical elegiac poems conventional throughout the...

Medieval Europe

Medieval Europe   Reference library

Chris Scarre, O. H. Creighton, Ken Dark, Matthew H. Johnson, Ken Dark, Matthew H. Johnson, Ken Dark, Matthew H. Johnson, and Alan G. Vince

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
9,818 words

...decline in the scale and design of churches. Antwerp and Milan cathedrals were started at this time, while the Perpendicular style was introduced in Britain, resulting in a number of fine churches, such as Bath Abbey and the nave of Winchester cathedral. Regionalism continued in the fifteenth century, when the earliest Renaissance buildings may be found in Italy. In Germany the Gothic hall church tradition continued, while in England, the Perpendicular chapel of King’s College, Cambridge, and central tower of Canterbury Cathedral show the continuation of this...

Death and Burial, Hellenistic and Roman Period, Palestine

Death and Burial, Hellenistic and Roman Period, Palestine   Reference library

Byron R. McCane

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,199 words
Illustration(s):
2

... arcosolia ), a wide, shallow, arch-shaped niche carved along the wall of the burial chamber, in which a body could be laid parallel to the wall, and (2) the loculus (pl. loculi ), a long, narrow slot carved deep into the wall of the tomb, in which a body could be laid perpendicular to the wall of the tomb. These niches, which are widely distributed around the Mediterranean world during the Hellenistic period, make their first appearance in Palestine during the Hellenistic period at Maresha, in the “painted tombs” discovered by Peters and Thiersch. They...

Islamic Civilization

Islamic Civilization   Reference library

John L. Meloy, Ian Straughn, and Donald Whitcomb

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
6,279 words

...In theory, this wall should be oriented perpendicular to the axis leading toward Mecca; worshipers lined in rows with this wall should all be facing the correct direction of prayer. Determination of this direction has not been an easy matter and a number of mosques show radical changes in orientation as corrections have been made. D. A. King ( 1992 ) has shown that the situation is even more complex as local geodesic traditions became important based on winds and astral signs. There is increasing evidence that a common southeast or southwest orientation may...

Gezer

Gezer   Reference library

Steven M. Ortiz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,050 words
Illustration(s):
2

...the hills and coast. During the Iron Age the typical house at Gezer was rectangular and consisted of four rooms. A central room with tabuns (ovens) was flanked by two parallel rooms on either side. These three rows of rooms were separated by pillars. There was a back room perpendicular to these three rows of rooms. This broad backroom functioned as a storage room. Such a house would have had a second story. To the northwest there is an eighth-century b.c.e. domestic quarter with several typical Iron-Age four-room houses built next to each other and a...

Mesoamerica

Mesoamerica   Reference library

Charlotte Beck, Thomas W. Killion, Barbara Voorhies, Jon Lohse, D. C. Grove, Arlen F. Chase, Deborah L. Nichols, Frances F. Berdan, Thomas H. Charlton, Janine Gasco, and William R. Fowler

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
15,106 words

...Its areal extent is estimated to have covered some 21 square miles (55 sq km) and to have held a population of over 147,000 people at its height. Unlike most other Mesoamerican sites of the Classic Period, Teotihuacán is laid out in a broad gridlike pattern with two major perpendicular and linear roadways bisecting each other in the center of this city. Public architecture lines the full distance of the road running north–south; two of the largest pyramids in Mesoamerica, Teotihuacán’s Pyramids of the Sun and Moon, are situated on this roadway. The site also...

Beth-Shean, Roman and Byzantine Period

Beth-Shean, Roman and Byzantine Period   Reference library

Gabriel Mazor

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
6,955 words
Illustration(s):
1

...served the city council as a bouleuterion (council meeting hall). At the southern side of the city a hippodrome was built at the second century c.e. , measuring 886 ft (270 m) in length and 230 ft (70 m) in width (Pl. 1:24). The seats were erected over ramps set within perpendicular walls and substructure vaults. During the fourth century it was partly dismantled, while its western part was turned into an amphitheater, 394 ft (120 m) long and 220 ft (67 m) wide. The tiers were supported by vaults, and the arena had a 10 ft (3 m) high wall adorned by a...

Maya Civilization

Maya Civilization   Reference library

Patricia A. McAnany, Satoru Murata, David Humiston Kelley, Michael D. Coe, Gerardo Aldana, T. Patrick Culbert, Simon Martin, Payson D. Sheets, T. Patrick Culbert, Astrid Runggaldier, George Michaels, Patricia A. McAnany, and Jason Yaeger

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
13,801 words

...through the ring—no easy feat—translated into an instant win. Although the rules of the “game” are not completely clear and may have varied from place to place, players apparently faced off on either side of a line that ran parallel to the long axis of the court rather than perpendicular to it. Ancient ball players could use only their head, shoulders, and hips. The earliest ball courts in the Maya lowlands—which occur in Belize at Cerros and Colha—were constructed after 400 BC. By AD 250, the ball game occupied a central place in elite society. Often a political...

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