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commission of Array

Subject: History

This was a means of raising local troops. The commissions instructed individuals to raise troops in their area and were first issued by Edward I. Parliament succeeded in obtaining a number ...

commission of array

commission of array   Reference library

A Dictionary of English Manuscript Terminology 1450–2000

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, History
Length:
59 words

... of array A commission of array is a formal instruction emanating directly or indirectly from the Crown (except in the Interregnum, when Parliament implemented the Militia Ordinance of 1641 ) for the raising of a force of militia by local officers or gentry. The term is also applied to the body of men so charged. See also muster rolls...

commission of array

commission of array   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

... of array Beginning in Edward I's reign the normal method of recruiting infantry troops was to set up commissions of array, although commissioners had been used earlier to ensure that men were properly provided with military equipment. All able-bodied men were obliged under the terms of the Statute of Winchester of 1285 to possess military equipment appropriate to their status. The commissioners, normally men with military experience, were appointed to recruit specified numbers of men for individual campaigns. In practice, the task of selecting men...

Array, Commission of

Array, Commission of   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Local and Family History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
110 words

..., Commission of . In the late 13th century, in order to raise an army from each shire in times of emergency, Edward I appointed commissioners from the ranks of the barons , knights of the shire, and officers of the royal household to choose from the muster rolls the required number of men from each township . Musters of males aged between 15 and 60 were held twice a year in every hundred or liberty . Wages were paid to men who had to serve abroad, but each man was expected to provide his own equipment. This system of providing against emergency...

Array, Commission of

Array, Commission of   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
110 words

..., Commission of In the late 13th century, in order to raise an army from each shire in times of emergency, Edward I appointed commissioners from the ranks of the barons , knights of the shire , and officers of the royal household to choose from the muster rolls the required number of men from each township . Musters of males aged between 15 and 60 were held twice a year in every hundred or liberty . Wages were paid to men who had to serve abroad, but each man was expected to provide his own equipment. This system of providing against emergency...

array, commissions of

array, commissions of   Quick reference

A Dictionary of British History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
104 words

..., commissions of This was a means of raising local troops. The commissions instructed individuals to raise troops in their area and were first issued by Edward I . Parliament succeeded in obtaining a number of concessions. Edward III promised in 1327 not to employ the men outside their county, save in case of invasion; in 1344 that the crown would pay wages if they were asked to serve outside the kingdom; in 1350 that commissions would only be issued with the consent of Parliament. After mid‐16th cent. it was more convenient to ask the ...

array, commissions of

array, commissions of   Reference library

J. A. Cannon

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
213 words

..., commissions of . This was a means of raising local troops between the fyrd and the feudal levy and the militia of modern times. The commissions instructed individuals, usually gentry or noblemen, to raise troops in their area and were first issued by Edward I . They were a heavy burden, particularly if the cost fell upon the township or locality and Parliament succeeded in obtaining a number of concessions. Edward III promised in 1327 not to employ the men outside their county, save in case of invasion; in 1344 that the crown would pay wages if...

commission of Array

commission of Array  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
This was a means of raising local troops. The commissions instructed individuals to raise troops in their area and were first issued by Edward I. Parliament succeeded in obtaining a number of ...
Painting

Painting   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,778 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of eminently unheroic people—women in fancy hats, humble prelates, and country gentry—jostle at the edges of Opie's and Northcote's history paintings, and hover beneath Reynolds's huge canvas. Furthermore, the crowd of visitors who attend the exhibition is made up not of a select group of élite males, but of a more motley crew of men and women (and children). Many seem wholly uninterested in the paintings on show, and more preoccupied with enjoying the event as an opportunity for entertainment and gossip. In this satirical context, the array of canvases...

Irish Local and Family History

Irish Local and Family History   Quick reference

Kevin Whelan

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,945 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...where the fusion of a diverse environmental base and a complex array of historical experiences has generated a variety of regions, each with a distinctive historical trajectory and inherited character. Because the country has only recently become urbanized, and because of the enduring role of its historical experience at the centre of its cultural and political life, Irish people remain intensely territorial. The sense of place and of kinship remains strong, reflected in a vibrant interest in local and family history. Currently, both of these are thriving,...

Hamlet, Prince of Denmark

Hamlet, Prince of Denmark   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
4,261 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...style. Using little more than 30% of the full text, Zeffirelli’s priority was clearly to target a young audience with a racy film made up of short-duration shots. Kenneth Branagh ’s Hamlet ( 1996 ) incorporates the First Folio text uncut with some additions from the second quarto. The complete version lasting over four hours is filmed on a lavish scale and the cast lists an array of famous names even in the small parts. The inclusion of a number of American film actors moves the film away from the British tradition of casting established stage actors for...

Novels

Novels   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,137 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and later ranging across a dazzling array of times and countries, opened with a first novel, Waverley ( 1814 ), which in its introductory chapter carefully marked out its difference from the typical productions of the modern novel, describing itself as a maiden knight entering the lists of fiction. The romance motif, denied in this opening chapter and in the novel as a whole (which sets Edward Waverley as a variant of Quixote, encountering the reality behind the Romantic illusion of Jacobite Scotland), was in practice a key factor in Scott's appeal....

Education

Education   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,267 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...come out of parish rates, they had no real security. As the fears of Catholicism subsided among the higher social ranks over the course of the eighteenth century, subscriptions for charity schools began to dry up, and their expansion halted. Anything approaching systematic organization of lower-class schooling in England and Wales, let alone an integrated national structure supervised or subsidized by the state, had to await the nineteenth century. Individual enterprise filled many gaps, however. A large array of institutions, embracing a large range of age...

Towns

Towns   Quick reference

David M. Palliser

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,140 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...acquiring much self‐government. So far the Church has been mentioned chiefly as an institution connected with the founding and governing of some towns, but it should also be remembered that it played a major role, and usually a very positive one, in the life of all medieval towns. Not all towns had a cathedral, monastery, nunnery , or major church, but nearly all had one or more parish churches, and many had a wide array of other ecclesiastical institutions—chapels, hospitals , and so on. In the 13th century towns acquired friaries , which were essentially...

48 The History of the Book in America

48 The History of the Book in America   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
12,975 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...an ever-expanding array of religious, ethnic, occupational, political, and regional ties, which complicate any unitary definition of national culture. That multiplicity of collective identities, as well as the differences among the intermediaries themselves, has worked to foster a wider range of meanings, purposes, and settings for reading. 2 The colonial period: a transatlantic world of books 2.1 17 th -century printing Printing in America before 1700 was a colonial endeavour in most respects. The first printers were immigrants, some of whose families would...

Gender Violence

Gender Violence  

Gender violence is a relatively new addition to the array of human rights violations. Although women's right to protection from discrimination was recognized as early as 1945, implementation was ...
Benedict Mason

Benedict Mason  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Music
(b Budleigh Salterton, 1955).Eng. composer. Won several prizes incl. Britten composers' comp. (1988), Clements memorial (1987), and Guido d'Arezzo int. comp. (1988). Also Fulbright Fellowship 1990, ...
William Young

William Young  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(1843–1900).Scots architect, he made designs for many town-and country-houses throughout the UK. One of his most resplendent interventions was at Robert Adam's Gosford House, near Longniddry, East ...
Henry E. Huntington

Henry E. Huntington  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(b Oneonta, NY, 27 Feb. 1850; d Philadelphia, 23 May 1927).American businessman, collector, and philanthropist. He made an enormous fortune, mainly in the railway industry, but by about 1910 he had ...
William Chambers

William Chambers  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(1723–96).Important British Classical architect. Son of a Scottish merchant, he was born at Göteborg, Sweden, educated in Yorks., and travelled in India and China with the Swedish East India Company ...
Harrison, Wallace Kirkman

Harrison, Wallace Kirkman (1895–1981)   Reference library

Patrick Goode

The Oxford Companion to Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
110 words

...Wallace Kirkman ( 1895–1981 ) and Abramovitz, Max ( 1908–2004 ) US architect s. Their firm ( 1945–76 ) designed three of the most prestigious commissions in post-war New York: the United Nations Headquarters ( 1947–53 , with the involvement of Le Corbusier, Niemeyer and Markelius); the Lincoln Centre for the Performing Arts, which includes the Metropolitan Opera House and Avery Fisher (formerly Philharmonic) Hall ( 1959–66 ); and the Albany South Mall ( 1963–78 ). Respectively a modernist curtain-walled glass slab, an exercise in stripped...

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