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commercial in confidence

Subject: Law

Term applied to commercially sensitive information made the subject of confidentiality covenants in contracts between governments and the private sector. Such covenants may enable ...

commercial in confidence

commercial in confidence   Reference library

Australian Law Dictionary (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Law
Length:
75 words

...commercial in confidence Term applied to commercially sensitive information made the subject of confidentiality covenants in contracts between governments and the private sector. Such covenants may enable governments to avoid disclosure of, e.g., costs breakdown or the identity or involvement of private interests that would otherwise be required by principles of transparency. Secrecy is justified on the basis of the need of the private sector partner in the public–private partnership . Cf trade secret ; transparency...

commercial in confidence

commercial in confidence  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
Term applied to commercially sensitive information made the subject of confidentiality covenants in contracts between governments and the private sector. Such covenants may enable governments to ...
Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,949 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...that Britain's military, political, and commercial ascendancy was naturally going to be accompanied by comparable architectural triumphs. And yet by the 1830s the tide of opinion had reversed. Observers perceived modern London as monotonous and possessed of too few magnificent public buildings. Parliamentary inquiries into Nash's Buckingham Palace deflated public confidence, as did the 1825 collapse of David Laing 's ( 1774–1856 ) London Custom House ( 1813–17 ). It was felt that architecture was becoming a commercial trade, populated by unscrupulous...

Local Government

Local Government   Quick reference

R. W. Hoyle

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,202 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...survive much beyond the end of the 16th century. A minority of court leets remained very active, as, for instance, Prescot in Lancashire in the 18th century, but the majority of manorial courts, if they were held at all after 1650 , dealt only with the transfer of copyhold lands. In part this appears to reflect changes in landholding and tenancy, but it also suggests the lack of interest of landowners in the court leet, little confidence within communities over their capacity for self‐government, and most importantly the appearance of the JPs as the providers...

21 The History of the Book in Ireland

21 The History of the Book in Ireland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,994 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...a more general confidence in Irish business, and—in an ironic sign of globalizing times—the presence of Penguin Ireland and Hodder Headline Ireland, two publishing conglomerates, which set up offices in Dublin in 2003 . Bibliography C. Benson , ‘Printers and Booksellers in Dublin 1800–1850’, in Spreading The Word: Distribution Networks of Print 1550–1850 , ed. R. Myers and M. Harris (1990) R. C. Cole , Irish Booksellers and English Writers, 1740–1800 (1986) R. Gillespie , Reading Ireland: Print, Reading, and Social Change in Early Modern Ireland ...

Political Economy

Political Economy   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,138 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...according to Smith, ‘as long as the course of human prosperity usually endures’. Smith's optimism is chiefly confined to what had been achieved in retrospect rather than what lies in prospect. He had no great confidence that wisdom would always prevent the ‘ordinary revolutions of war and government’ from putting an end to the growth of national opulence, though he believed that there was ‘a great deal of ruin’ in nations. If any single discovery was crucial to the accidental and largely unwilled results of the previous 200 years, it was the discovery and...

23 The History of the Book in the Low Countries

23 The History of the Book in the Low Countries   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,998 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...). Motivated by religious zeal as much as by commercial gain, some printers did not hesitate to risk their lives by producing Protestant books, often working underground or from exile in places such as Emden just across the border in Germany. A typical example is the Antwerp printer and bookseller Adriaen van Berghen . Having been convicted in 1535 for selling heretical books from his stall in Antwerp, he fled to Holland, where he lived in various places until he finally settled in Delft. When, in 1542 , his house was found to contain a stock of...

Central Government, Courts, and Taxation

Central Government, Courts, and Taxation   Quick reference

R. W. Hoyle

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
7,753 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in the ‘Republic of the Village’ which has interested historians in recent years. The reason for government quiescence may in part be a reaction against pre‐Civil War prerogative government; but it also reflects the decline in social anxiety and a greater confidence in the strength of social institutions. The expansion of government over the past 200 years reflects the wearing thin of that 18th‐century confidence. This has produced the enormous increase in the range of activities in which it has been thought necessary for government to be involved. In turn,...

Empire

Empire   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,298 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...governing landed class which had become convinced of the possibilities of increasing wealth by the application of improving techniques, whether in agriculture, manufacture, or in response to such social problems as the *poor law . The greatly increased yields made possible by the techniques associated with the *agricultural revolution reinforced the cultural values of the *Enlightenment [32] with its confidence in the fruitfulness of experimental and scientific techniques and the possibilities of human progress [ see *land, 16 ]. Both at the metropolitan...

Design

Design   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,178 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...a globally dominant economy, its commercial might expressed in the construction of new docks, its financial power accrued through sophisticated banking and insurance systems. In tune with this material confidence, Benjamin Dean Wyatt ( 1775–1850 ), son of James Wyatt, installed Rococo revival interiors in Belvoir Castle, Apsley House, Crockford's Gaming House, York—later Stafford (now Lancaster)—House, and Buckingham Palace. It was an expensive, showy style which George IV, for one, had difficulty paying for. When he died in 1830 he owed the firm of Morel...

Scottish Local and Family History

Scottish Local and Family History   Quick reference

David moody

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,622 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...journal, Scottish History Review , now leans much more towards social, economic, and local studies. The relative decline of interest in political and state history matches the erosion of the traditional Tory view of history (in Scotland, of course, Toryism has suffered dramatic decline). This has permitted the issues of quasi‐nationhood and deference to an insecure centre to be bypassed, releasing a new confidence in local identity and generating new‐style local history societies and an umbrella organization, the Scottish Local History Forum, which...

Law

Law   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,210 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in mentalities relating to law along Benthamite lines during this period, there is evidence of a widespread decline in the amount of confidence which contemporaries were prepared to invest in the ideals and apparatus of the common law tradition. It does appear that a change of emphasis was under way, a shift which anticipated the modern British tradition of positivist law reform and legislative governance. The roots of changing attitudes to the law have to be located in the administrative challenges posed by rapid social and economic development and in the...

Theatre

Theatre   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,088 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...market-place. Both sides in the conflict between the patent theatres and the minors justified their essentially commercial motives in terms of their duty to represent the ‘public’, the definition of which became a central issue in theatre politics. What kind of public could the theatre audience be said to represent? What, if any, acknowledgement was it owed by those who profited from it? The regulation of theatre in the provinces had similar far-reaching effects. The Licensing Act was administered haphazardly outside London, and in practice dramatic activity...

Irish Local and Family History

Irish Local and Family History   Quick reference

Kevin Whelan

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,945 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...attaches us to the authentic, and therefore to the universal. Framed in these perspectives, the cultural significance of local history becomes apparent. Local history helps to nurture the sense of a shared historical experience that is pivotal to a sense of place and ultimately of community. These developments impacted on the practice of local history. A new self‐confidence and professionalism became evident in the 1980s, marked by the creation of federations of local history societies in both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. There was an...

Adjective Check List

Adjective Check List  

In psychometrics, any list of adjectives that can be marked as applicable or not applicable to oneself, to one's ideal self, to another person, or to some other entity or concept. When written with ...
biro

biro  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(established 1943)The biro, or ballpoint pen, was developed commercially by Hungarian brothers László (1900–85) and George Biró in the 1940s, though its antecedents may be traced back to a patent ...
Theophilus Gould Steward

Theophilus Gould Steward  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
(1843–1924), minister, journalist, novelist, historian, and autobiographer.T. G. Steward was born in 1843 in Gould-town, Pennsylvania, one of the oldest African American settlements in the state. ...
William Pitt

William Pitt  

(1759–1806),known as Pitt the Younger. Prime minister. The second son of William Pitt, earl of Chatham, was educated privately and at Cambridge. From an early age, his father supervised his ...
Business Improvement Districts

Business Improvement Districts  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(BIDs)A strategy for mobilizing private funding in order to improve the environment of city centres. By 1997 over 1000 Business Improvement Districts (BIDs) or Zones had been created in the USA and ...
British Empire Exhibition

British Empire Exhibition  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(1924)The vast British Empire Exhibition (BEE) of 1924 covered 216 acres (87 hectares) in Wembley, London, attracting 27 million visitors over the two seasons that it was open. It revealed the extent ...

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