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Overview

collective harassment

Subject: Law

A term inserted into s 7 of the Protection from Harassment Act 1997 by s 44 of the Criminal Justice and Police Act 2001 to make those who aid, abet, counsel, and procure acts of harassment ...

collective harassment

collective harassment   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Law Enforcement (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Law
Length:
47 words

... harassment A term inserted into s 7 of the Protection from Harassment Act 1997 by s 44 of the Criminal Justice and Police Act 2001 to make those who aid, abet, counsel, and procure acts of harassment liable for the conduct that they have brought...

collective harassment

collective harassment  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
A term inserted into s 7 of the Protection from Harassment Act 1997 by s 44 of the Criminal Justice and Police Act 2001 to make those who aid, abet, counsel, and procure acts of harassment liable for ...
joint regulation

joint regulation  

Is the process of joint rule-making by employers, trade unions, and other workplace representatives through collective bargaining and codetermination. Employment rules developed in this way may be ...
Equal Opportunities Act 2006

Equal Opportunities Act 2006  

Reference type:
Overview Page
This Act replaced the Equal Opportunities Commission, the Commission for Racial Equality, and the Disability Rights Commission with a unitary Commission for Equality and Human Rights. The Act ...
violence

violence   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
139 words

...or by one collective against another, including in the form of political violence ( see crime ; sexual violence ; terrorism ; war ). Although violence is often thought of as direct or immediate, Norwegian sociologist Johan Galtung conceptualized ‘structural violence’ as the systematic prevention of individuals’ potential by government action; racial discrimination is an example ( see racism ). US political theorist Iris Marion Young similarly examined ‘systematic violence’—including physical attacks, sexual and racial harassment, and...

Equal Opportunities Act 2006

Equal Opportunities Act 2006   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Education (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
152 words

...Equality, and the Disability Rights Commission with a unitary Commission for Equality and Human Rights . The Act requires public authorities to promote equality between men and women, and between girls and boys, and to explicitly prohibit sexual harassment. It also makes it unlawful for any individual, collective body, or organization to discriminate on the grounds of religion and belief; and it enables provision for the prohibition of discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation. The Act represents an important step in anti-discrimination, and is of...

Smith, Barbara

Smith, Barbara (b. 16 December 1946)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
889 words

...to the southern Confederacy. Throughout the Combahee River Collective's tenure, the group brought national attention to various issues facing women of color, such as reproductive rights, forced sterilization, health care, sexual harassment, labor organizing, physical violence, and state-sponsored institutional violence. One of the CRC's best-known demonstrations was their 1979 protest of the murder of twelve black women in Boston. On the heels of her involvement with the Combahee River Collective, in 1981 Smith cofounded Kitchen Table: Women of Color...

women in the labour movement

women in the labour movement   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Canadian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
486 words

...until the 1970s before they gained the right to withdraw their labour. The growing presence of women in labour organizations at a time when the second-wave women's movement gained prominence led to debates on issues including equal pay for work of equal value, sexual harassment, reproductive health, childcare, and racism. Women formed committees and caucuses to push for equality within the labour movement, demanding more women in positions of authority. In the last 25 years women have achieved prominence as leaders of unions ( Grace Hartman , Judy Darcy , in...

ethics

ethics   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Journalism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
430 words

...protecting the identity of an anonymous source , for example, or might risk breaking the Official Secrets Act to reveal information in the public interest . Major areas of ethical controversy include privacy , intrusion into grief, war reporting , bias , censorship , harassment , media scrums , stereotyping , and the use of discriminatory language . However, ethics cannot be reduced to a list of discrete aspects or separated from other aspects of journalism, because everything journalists do has potential implications: every story selected,...

Black People's Day of Action

Black People's Day of Action   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Black British History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
687 words

...have been the work of the neo‐fascist right‐wing anti‐immigration National Front party. Widespread beliefs that the police lacked the political will and commitment to address these sustained attacks against black communities were underscored by allegations of police brutality, harassment, and racism towards black people in general and black youth in particular. The alleged inability or unwillingness of the police to protect black communities from racist violence had severely undermined the community's trust in the police. Frustration increased further when,...

Mahila Dakshata Samiti

Mahila Dakshata Samiti   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
590 words

...along with other women's organizations. At that time it had firebrand leaders like Mrinal Gore in Bombay (called Mumbai since 1995 ). MDS used various methods for investigating and collecting evidence against dowry harassments and dowry murders, including recording witness accounts, working with specialist lawyers’ collectives, using the mass media, mobilizing antiviolence women's networks, organizing local and national marches, lobbying the courts and the government with high levels of publicity, and publicizing a corrupt police system that colluded...

Menacing Characters

Menacing Characters  

The Oxford Companion to Crime and Mystery Writing

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Literature

...life. When writers take a contrary view of society, however, seeing it as disorderly and unfortunately hospitable to crime, characters with an aura of menace about them become highly functional. The memorable radio drama of the 1940s “Sorry, Wrong Number” features the harassment of a bedridden woman by the repeated ringing of her telephone by an anonymous caller preying on her condition of solitude. Although the caller is faceless, genderless, and voiceless, his or her messageless signals are sufficient to suggest that beyond the victim 's bedroom...

Brown Berets

Brown Berets   Reference library

Milo M. Alvarez

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...against poor conditions and racist treatment and advocated for Chicano teachers to be hired and for Chicano studies courses to be taught—and the 1970 National Chicano Moratorium against the Vietnam War. Both events brought about multiple arrests of Beret members, police harassment, and constant law-enforcement surveillance, including by the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Counter Intelligence Program (COINTELPRO); this surveillance persisted throughout the organization’s existence. However, these developments did not deter similar pro-education and...

Violence

Violence   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
4,746 words
Illustration(s):
2

...traveled around the country to tell his story in churches and schools and auditoriums. Because of her, Emmett Till will continue to live in the collective memory of black Americans. Finally, in the 1980s, African American women, who were victims of both racial and sexual harassment, filed the first legal cases used to define case law on sexual harassment. In 1991 the country witnessed the most public sexual harassment hearing in history, brought forth by the professor Anita Hill against (shortly thereafter, the Supreme Court justice) Clarence Thomas , both...

Guerrero-Cruz, Dolores

Guerrero-Cruz, Dolores   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
934 words

...Davis, in 1977 , that she met the members of the Royal Chicano Air Force ( RCAF ), a seminal Chicana and Chicano art collective in central California. The RCAF, based at rival Sacramento State University, invited Guerrero-Cruz to join them in doing art. During the year she spent with the group, she learned about color separation and became deeply involved in printmaking as well as in the artistic and political activities of the collective. When circumstances demanded her return to Los Angeles in 1978 , she enrolled in a silkscreen class at UCLA. There she...

Council on American-Islamic Relations

Council on American-Islamic Relations   Reference library

Sabina von Fischer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
777 words

...1996 to 1999 CAIR gained public attention by bringing advocacy cases against prominent corporations, such as the publisher Simon & Schuster as well as against Nike. After 9/11 CAIR was asked for assistance by Muslim Americans and others perceived as Muslims that were targets of harassment and hate crimes. By 2009, CAIR's training of the Muslim community concentrated on three primary areas: the fostering of individual awareness of rights, civic participation, and the building of media relations. This type of focus can be considered as key to CAIR's success: the ...

Gangs

Gangs   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
867 words

...El Rukns gang in Chicago, for example) and South Africa. Third, gangs may act as an unofficial arm of the state or, conversely, a countervailing force against a particular form of state action. At times gangs serve as a local police force, at others as a guardian against police harassment. In low-income communities throughout the world, and among middle-income communities primarily in the Third World, gangs provide protection that the police either cannot (for lack of efficiency or power) or will not (for personal or class interests) provide. Cases in which...

Collins, Barbara-Rose

Collins, Barbara-Rose (13 April 1939)   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
872 words

...she attended. Collins then organized parents into a community-based collective. The grassroots body successfully lobbied for mandatory homework assignments and new textbooks to replace the inferior ones that students read. The experience prepared her well for her future congressional activities. In 1974 Collins was elected to the first of three terms in the Michigan House of Representatives. As a state representative, she introduced and led successful fights for the Sexual Harassment Bill, the Pension Rights Bill, the Commission on Domestic Violence, and...

women and performance

women and performance   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Theatre and Performance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
907 words

...in England since they were thought to display themselves to please the predominantly male audience of the Restoration period. Although some formed relationships with members of the nobility— Nell Gwynn became one of Charles's mistresses—many others were subject to sexual harassment from managers and the public. The Licensing Act of 1737 raised the status of the theatrical profession as a whole by separating professional performers from the category of rogues and vagabonds, and the development of women's roles in sentimental comedy ( see comédie...

Gender

Gender   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...Female Identity and the Military, emphasizes the relationship that women have had to war and the military. For more detailed related discussions, see Combat Effectiveness , Gays and Lesbians in the Military , Gender and War , Military Ideals, Sex and the Military , Sexual Harassment , Women in the Military . Male Identity and the Military Female Identity and the Military Gender: Male Identity and the Military Male identity in the United States, except in certain pacifist groups, has generally been closely tied to the socially defined role of warrior and...

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