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collective conscience

Defined by Émile Durkheim as ‘the body of beliefs and sentiments common to the average of members of a society’, it comprised a form and content which varies according to whether society ...

collective conscience

collective conscience   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
238 words

... conscience Defined by Émile Durkheim as ‘the body of beliefs and sentiments common to the average of members of a society’, its form and content varies according to whether society is characterized by mechanical or organic solidarity. In the former, the collective conscience is extensive and strong, ranging far and wide into people’s lives, controlling them in detail through various religious or other traditional sanctions. It emphasizes the primacy of society over the individual and his or her dignity. However, the growth of a division of labour and...

collective conscience

collective conscience  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Defined by Émile Durkheim as ‘the body of beliefs and sentiments common to the average of members of a society’, it comprised a form and content which varies according to whether society is ...
Islam, Reform, and the New Arab Man

Islam, Reform, and the New Arab Man   Reference library

Hichem Djait

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
2,890 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...by title of ancient conquest unless it ceases to be on the defensive, and it will not lower its guard unless new spiritual perspectives are opened up for it. Furthermore, the collective mentality of society will not accommodate itself to new plans of action unless they are coherent and carry in themselves the germ of a better life, and to make this accommodation, the collective mentality must be rationalized, that is to say, secularized. This poses the problem in its full dialectical breadth. The solution will come from the dynamism and creativity of the future...

Islam and Humanism

Islam and Humanism   Reference library

Mamadiou Dia

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
6,144 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...threatens us. The shock which the rise of the great modern myths of socialization, progress, alienation have provoked among the Muslim masses and in the consciences of the elites, tends to constitute, in the wise remark of Teilhard de Chardin, “a veritable religion not of joyous adoration but of disinterested conquest, undoubtedly generating high spiritual forces,” substituting in people's consciences “the sense of the world” for God, makes urgent the elaboration of a new signification of religion which incorporates in its perspectives the sense of...

Islam and Secularism

Islam and Secularism   Reference library

Asghar Ali Engineer

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
3,243 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...non-Muslims equal religious and political rights. The theory of political rights in the modern Islamic state should be based on this document. There is a great deal of emphasis on freedom of conscience and human rights in the modern civil society. It is highly regrettable that most of the Muslim countries do not have a good record in this field. Freedom of conscience, human rights and democracy are quite integral to each other. In most of the Muslim majority countries today which have declared themselves as “Islamic countries,” even the democratic discourse...

The Characteristics of Islamic Economics

The Characteristics of Islamic Economics   Reference library

Āyatullāh Mahmūd

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
3,392 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...views, the strengthening of faith, the cultivation of consciences and human values. It has explained economic laws and rules according to this principle. . . . Third, Islam has organized and systematized the limits of ownership and economic relations in terms of three characters: 1. individuals; 2. laws; and 3. government. As in other affairs, individuals are free to enjoy material things to the limit of their maturity and according to the dictates of their faith and the responsibility of their consciences. They can benefit and enjoy property as long as it...

Contemporary Arab Ideology

Contemporary Arab Ideology   Reference library

‘Abdallāh Laroui

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
3,555 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...under their true names? These three men, in fact, represent three moments of the Arab conscience which has been trying since the end of the last century to understand itself and to understand the West. They were described abstractly because they are found in diverse forms of literature (essays, newspaper articles, plays), and they are not incarnated in the same man for all the Arab countries. No doubt there is already a presentiment that to judge these forms of conscience several questions must be answered: Do they form an historical sequence? Who has given...

Islam and Modernity

Islam and Modernity   Reference library

Fazlur Rahman

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
11,833 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...himself serves, in part, as historical Islam for an understanding of the Qur'an)—we would not be able even to understand it. Religiously speaking, no doubt, the Qur'an has to be taken as though it were revealed to the conscience of every believer—and Sufis have sometimes taken this to an extreme—but it can be so revealed to the conscience of a believer only after it has been properly understood, which requires putting its legal and social enunciations in their historical setting. Besides, within historical Islam differences in religious attitude can be...

23 The History of the Book in the Low Countries

23 The History of the Book in the Low Countries   Reference library

Paul Hoftijzer

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,047 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...they achieved a temporary market share of no less than 20 per cent. A characteristic feature of the Dutch book trade was the fixing of book prices, a collective agreement among publishers and retailers enforcing uniform pricing, with the intention of guaranteeing a varied supply of books ( cf . net book agreement ). One undesired effect, however, was overproduction. At the same time, new collective initiatives were adopted by the various branch organizations of the book trade. Book promotion was now organized centrally by the Commissie Collectieve...

The Necessity of Renewing Islamic Thought and Reinvigorating Religious Understanding

The Necessity of Renewing Islamic Thought and Reinvigorating Religious Understanding   Reference library

Nurcholish Madjid

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
7,874 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...this reason, these religious values are highly individual in nature. They may vary [in quality], especially if there is external pressure. They are man's most personal and most deep-rooted possessions. They are perfectly preserved in the innermost chambers of the heart or moral conscience. Such religiosity is so perfectly hidden and preserved in the breast that only God knows of it and only He can evaluate it. The person concerned can only feel it, but is not able to explain or reveal it to others properly because of the limitations of the mind and language. ...

The Covenant of the Islamic Resistance Movement HAMAS

The Covenant of the Islamic Resistance Movement HAMAS   Reference library

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
4,447 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...it gave rise to, such as the Freemasons, the Rotary and Lions Clubs, and other sabotage groups. All these organizations, whether secret or open, work in the interest of Zionism and according to its instructions. They aim at undermining societies, destroying values, corrupting consciences, deteriorating character and annihilating Islam. It is behind the drug trade and alcoholism in all its kinds so as to facilitate its control and expansion. Arab countries surrounding Israel are asked to open their borders before the fighters from among the Arab and Islamic nations...

15 Children’s Books

15 Children’s Books   Reference library

Andrea Immel

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,066 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...order to accommodate their actual capabilities and to ensure that children would not be excluded from God’s grace should they die before becoming capable of true faith. Yet the Puritans also shaped texts in ways that respected children’s autonomy and preserved their freedom of conscience. The result was revolutionary works whose pedagogy was surprisingly child-centred. For example, the Ludus Literarius ( 1612 ) of John Brinsley , Master of Ashby-de-la-Zouche School, incorporates progressive teaching techniques for the youngest learners. Among the most...

Poverty

Poverty   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,179 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and love of fripperies; moral shortcomings with different implications in the male and female poor. Idleness was the coagulant around which other vices clustered. Clerics and commentators on trade alike declared that labour was a duty owed to God, nation, employer, body, and conscience. They read political and moral lessons from the social inferiority of the poor. Such inferiority displayed the ideal, hierarchical order of family and society; it was a necessary condition which guaranteed stability, civility, and deference between sexes and ranks. Writers...

Islam and the Challenge of the Modern World

Islam and the Challenge of the Modern World   Reference library

Shabbir Akhtar

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
6,182 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...we worship, Thee alone we ask for help,” says the sura [Sura 1, Verse 4] . Could there be a better way of imposing an embargo on every false ideal, an operative veto on any attempt to seek support from purely human sources? This indeed is the voice of the truly iconoclastic conscience. But to attain here the right kind of trust in God—an effortless trust—requires effort, sustained labor. “Guide us in the straight path,” the sura continues [Sura 1, Verse 5] . The mood for submission ( islam ) is well captured in the imperative “ Ihdena ” (Guide...

Introduction: Muslim Activist Intellectuals and Their Place in
          History

Introduction: Muslim Activist Intellectuals and Their Place in History   Reference library

John L. Esposito and John O. Voll

Makers of Contemporary Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
9,895 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... The ulama were not, as ulama, officially part of the political structure of the caliphate. They acted as critical intellectuals, often providing powerful critiques of existing conditions. “The ulema regarded themselves as the collective voice of the conscience of society.” 29 When some Abbasid caliphs in the ninth century attempted to establish the role of the caliph as final authority in determining the correctness of theological positions, it was the ulama who provided the main...

Hebrews

Hebrews   Reference library

Harold W. Attridge and Harold W. Attridge

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
22,421 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...i.e. the tabernacle. For our author, the ‘present time’ is not dominated by the old cult, but by Christ's sacrifice. The tabernacle prefigures inadequately what is now effectively present through Christ's sacrifice, which affects the human heart. Scripture has no word for ‘conscience’ ( syneidesis ), which is common in the Hellenistic world. It appears in Jewish ( Wis 17:10 ; Jos. Ant. 16.100) and early Christian literature (e.g. Rom 2:15; 1 Cor 4:4; 1 Pet 2:14 ; 1 Clem. 1.3). v. 10 , the homilist criticizes the superficiality of levitical sacrifices....

Extremism

Extremism   Reference library

Yusuf Al-Qaradawi

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
6,314 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...is the trap into which the Khawarij fell during the dawn of Islam, although they were known for their strict observance of religious duties such as prayer, fasting, and recitation of the Qur'an. However, their thinking rather than their conscience was distorted and corrupt. Hence they were so infatuated with their belief and behavior that they unintentionally deviated from the right path. The Prophet, peace be upon him, described the devotion of such people by saying: “Any of you would hold insignificant his...

1 Corinthians

1 Corinthians   Reference library

John Barclay and John Barclay

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
31,224 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...from the involvement of other people in the meal. Paul is concerned for the ‘conscience’ of someone else who declares the food to have been involved in sacrifice ( 10:28 ). Because the phrase, ‘This has been offered in sacrifice’, does not use the Jewish/Christian term ‘idolatrous’, many interpreters take this informant to be a non-believer (either fellow-guest or host; e.g. Fee 1987 : 483–5 ). But it is hard to see why Paul would be concerned with an unbeliever's conscience in this matter, and it is better to see here the same weak Christians as were in...

The Principle of Movement in the Structure of Islam

The Principle of Movement in the Structure of Islam   Reference library

Muhammad Iqbal

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
11,677 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and then transforming this atomic aggregate into a people possessing a self-consciousness of their own. This was not an easy task to accomplish. Yet Islam, by means of its well-conceived institutions, has succeeded to a very great extent in creating something like a collective will and conscience in this heterogeneous mass. In the evolution of such a society even the immutability of socially harmless rules relating to eating and drinking, purity or impurity, has a lifevalue of its own, inasmuch as it tends to give such society a specific inwardness, and...

Introduction to the Pauline Corpus

Introduction to the Pauline Corpus   Reference library

Terence L. Donaldson

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
25,035 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...has by no means been limited to the Reformed segment of Christendom. Hymnody, homilies, iconography and other forms of aesthetic representation, across the Christian spectrum and down through the centuries; the nineteenth-century missionary movement; the ‘introspective conscience of the west’ ( Stendahl 1976 : 78–96 ); popular idiom (‘all things to all people’; ‘thorn in the flesh’; ‘charisma’); contemporary Jewish–Christian dialogue; social-scientific models of conversion—the influence of Paul has been pervasive and far-reaching. 4. For these reasons...

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