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co-text

The words surrounding a particular word or passage within a text that provide context and help to determine meaning.

co-text

co-text   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
20 words

...-text The words surrounding a particular word or passage within a text that provide context and help to determine...

co-text

co-text   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...-text The larger text in which another (portion of) text appears without reference to the circumstances, location, situation , etc. in which the larger text is used, i.e. without reference to the context of...

co‐text

co‐text   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
77 words

...‐text The relevant text or discourse of which a sentence etc. is part: e.g. the cotext of Why wouldst thou be a breeder of sinners? ( Hamlet , iii . 1) is that speech of Hamlet’s ( Get thee to a nunnery  … ), or the dialogue in that scene between Ophelia and Hamlet, or whatever longer text is relevant to some specific inquiry. Sometimes defined as part of context in a wider sense; sometimes as opposed to...

co-text

co-text  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The words surrounding a particular word or passage within a text that provide context and help to determine meaning.
Tenses

Tenses   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
1,382 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in Business, Government, and the Professions 111 ( 1974 ). • “Guest . . . had had plenty of time to have challenged [read to challenge ] on either side.” Geoff Lester , “Guest's Up and Downer!” Sporting Life , 15 Nov. 1996 , at 19. • “It would have been unfair to the co-authors, he said, to have listed [read to list ] Dr. Lu among them.” Nicholas Wade , “Scientists Find a Key Weapon Used by H.I.V.,” N.Y. Times , 19 Apr. 1997 , at 1, 9. This problem occurs frequently with the verbs seemed and appeared —e.g.: • “Ripken appeared to have...

Class

Class   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,846 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in writings by co-operators and socialists all over the country for at least the next ten years, and helped to energize co-operative and communitarian ventures which aimed partly to give labour the value it had created. To counter political economy—the science of wealth—the socialists also developed a more democratic ‘social science’, or science of happiness, and not only imagined a state of affairs where working people would take all areas of cultural life into their own control but also tried to experience it in their halls of science. The co-operative...

Prints

Prints   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,058 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...ancient craft traditions. Yet, remarkably, one print-maker survived into modern times. This was Ross & Co., which was discovered to be still printing off some of its inheritance of copper plates in London's Hampstead Road until it moved in 1966 . It had retained many of its records, and it proved also to have inherited many of the most important plates of the eighteenth century because, as other printmakers collapsed in the nineteenth century, Ross & Co. was able to acquire the stock, which included still printable plates by Gainsborough and Stubbs ....

Antiquarianism (Popular)

Antiquarianism (Popular)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,164 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...three successive days in December 1817 for publishing three political satires, of which the best-known was ‘The Political Litany’. Each of the offending texts parodied the prayer-book or the Old Testament, and in doing so threatened the constitution, according to the Attorney-General, who led for the prosecution: his argument, based on the seventeenth-century jurist Edward Coke , was that these sacred texts were ‘parcel’ of the *law [8] of England. Hone defended himself from the dock, on the second and third days before Lord Chief Justice *Ellenborough ....

Punctuation

Punctuation   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
7,703 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...follows the end punctuation; if not, the end punctuation is placed outside, as in the previous sentence here. More specifically, parentheses are used in four ways. First, they indicate interpolations and remarks by the writer of the text <Mrs. X (as I shall call her) now spoke> . Second, they specify, in one's own running text, an authority, definition, explanation, reference, or translation <according to Fowler ( FMEU1 at 64), it is correct to . . . > . Third, in reporting a speech, they sometimes indicate interruptions by the audience ...

Exploration

Exploration   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,825 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

.... Until that point, however, history was understood in cyclical as much as in progressive terms, and as a process in which virtue and corruption might co-exist almost indefinitely [ see *history, 38 ]. Anthropological thought in the period was thus not a discrete body of theory, confined to general treatises, but a set of ideas that extended to other kinds of writing such as *travel literature . In such texts the four-stage categories were adapted, distorted, or abandoned to accommodate local, observed social differences that were frequently explained,...

Natural Philosophy (Science)

Natural Philosophy (Science)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,186 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...for the Advancement of Science ( BAAS ) was formed, partly in an attempt to co-ordinate the diverse research interests represented by the various single-science societies. The first secretary, the Revd William Vernon Harcourt ( 1789–1871 ), aimed to prevent the fragmentation of the ‘commonwealth of science’ under the pressure of specialization. But natural philosophy—a term significantly absent from the title of the BAAS—was no longer the banner under which this co-ordination of the sciences could be achieved. The annual meetings of the BAAS divided...

Revolution

Revolution   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,734 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...that for several generations British radicalism would take a broadly popular rather than a class form, and that it could forge significant temporary links with populist parliamentarians such as Sir Francis *Burdett and Henry *Hunt . Indeed, the most striking example of this co-operative activity was the resurgence of organized political radicalism in the years 1817–19 , during which extra-parliamentary politics was dominated first by petitions and ‘remonstrances’ and subsequently by the spread of mass meetings (culminating in the *Peterloo massacre in...

Education

Education   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,267 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...according to the text accompanying Rudolph *Ackermann 's engravings of selected English schools, published in 1816 ; and it was expressly labelled a ‘Free School’ there. In the same year, Brougham's parliamentary committee on education noted the ‘very many instances’ at Christ's Hospital ‘of children being admitted, whose parents are totally destitute’. But all the other establishments selected for inclusion in the Ackermann volume were identical to those in Smith's list of ‘public schools’ (with Harrow now added as well), and the text quoted a statement...

Literary Theory

Literary Theory   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,935 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... and the powers of the mind. Confronted with a culture where words have separated themselves from both subjects and things, Wordsworth sets out a poetic programme aimed at stripping artifice from *poetry [29] to make it expressive of the elementary laws of our nature. This co-ordination of aesthetics and subjectivity introduces a political programme: the poet emerges as a prophet who speaks for human nature, creates a community of taste, and so binds together what modern life divides. In De Quincey's language, the poet's literature of power awakens...

The Merry Wives of Windsor

The Merry Wives of Windsor   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,720 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

.... Text: The play was entered in the Stationers’ Register in January 1602 , and was printed in the same year in a quarto that was subsequently reprinted in 1619 : a much fuller and more reliable text appeared in the Folio in 1623 , and was itself reprinted in quarto in 1630 . The two early quartos preserve an abbreviated and sometimes clumsily rewritten text of the play, apparently adapted from a memorial reconstruction ( see reported text ) prepared by an actor who had played the Host, but it is nonetheless a useful one, since the Folio text...

The Tempest

The Tempest   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Anthony Davies, and Will Sharpe

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
4,078 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...influenced by their critical understanding of the line’s context and purport. Folger Shakespeare Library Shelfmark: TLN 1786-7 (folio sig B2r). Used by permission of the Folger Shakespeare Library. Text: The Folio provides the only authoritative text of the play: it was prepared with care, apparently from a literary transcript by the scribe Ralph Crane . The text’s unusually detailed stage directions were probably elaborated by Crane for the benefit of readers from briefer indications in his copy, but they may well reflect his accurate recollections of seeing...

The Taming of the Shrew

The Taming of the Shrew   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Anthony Davies, and Will Sharpe

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,052 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...by which it is accomplished. Text: Although The Taming of a Shrew appeared in quarto in 1594 , 1596 , and 1607 , The Taming of the Shrew was not printed until the publication of the Folio in 1623 . Its text is among the most puzzling in the canon: for one thing it lacks a completion to the frame-narrative of Christopher Sly, which disappears after 1.1 (though one possible ending is preserved by The Taming of a Shrew , which is probably a garbled plagiarism of Shakespeare’s play). In incidentals the Folio text is a mess, and an inconsistent mess...

The First Part of the Contention of the Two Famous Houses of York and Lancaster

The First Part of the Contention of the Two Famous Houses of York and Lancaster   Reference library

Randall Martin, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,732 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... was that Shakespeare revised and expanded Q1, which he believed was written by Greene and/or others. Alternatively, Dr Johnson and Edward Capell speculated that Q1 was some kind of report of the Folio text made from memory or shorthand. A. W. Pollard supported this view in 1909 by dividing Shakespeare quarto editions into ‘Good’ legitimate texts, and ‘Bad’ unauthorized and corrupt ones. In 1928 Madeleine Doran argued that Q1 was deliberately revised and shortened for touring performances outside London, and (independently) in 1929 Peter...

The Two Noble Kinsmen

The Two Noble Kinsmen   Reference library

Michael Dobson

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,335 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...that Jonson expected this play to be fresh in his spectators’ minds. Imogen Stubbs as the Jailer’s Daughter in Barry Kyle’s production of The Two Noble Kinsmen which opened the RSC’s new Swan theatre in Stratford, 1986. Donald Cooper / Photostage Text: The 1634 quarto provides the only substantive text of The Two Noble Kinsmen , and its various inconsistencies—including variant spellings, such as ‘Perithous’ and ‘Pirithous’, ‘Ialor’ and ‘Iaylor’—suggest that it was set from foul papers in the hands of both playwrights, though these had probably been...

37 The History of the Book in Sub-Saharan Africa

37 The History of the Book in Sub-Saharan Africa   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,157 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...the continent’s engagement with writing and the economies of text is much older. Scribal cultures thrived in parts of West Africa on early trade routes across the Sahara, and although knowledge of Arabic seems never to have been widespread, a significant literature in African languages transcribed in Arabic script (‘Ajami’) developed. Important MS libraries survive in Mali, as well as in Ghana, Côte d’Ivoire, Niger, Senegal, and northern Nigeria—whence early Hausa-language Ajami texts date from the 17 th century. Most other West African countries also...

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