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Overview

closure

1. A satisfying sense of completion or completeness. 2. A defining feature of a narrative that resolves all of the issues in a ‘proper ending’. See ...

closure

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Mathematics (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

... The closure of an open set A is obtained by including in it all limit points of the set A . For example, if A is the set { x : 1< x <2, x ∈ R } then the closure of A would include 1 and 2 as the limit points, giving { x : 1≤ x ≤2, x ∈ R...

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The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science & Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007

... The formation of a bony union between the diaphysis and epiphysis after the epiphyseal plate ceases to proliferate and the bone has reached...

closure

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A Dictionary of Computer Science (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

... 1. See closed semiring . See also Kleene star . 2. A technique used in lazy functional languages (and increasingly in non-functional languages) to delay computation until a value is actually needed....

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A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... The delimitation of, or setting boundaries to, an enquiry. Massey (1999) TIBG 24 lists the methods of closure commonly used by geographers: oversimplification; bounding a region by process, rather than space; and limiting an enquiry to a specified time period. ‘The process of closing research must address the motives behind research topics and questions; the reasons for preferring a particular methodology in addressing a given set of research questions, including the theoretical and practical issues raised by closure; and the importance of place in...

closure

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The Oxford Companion to Canadian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
151 words

... . A procedure in a legislature that can be invoked unilaterally by the government to limit debate on a government measure. Generally employed as a remedy for filibustering or prolonged debate, closure takes place after oral notice and a vote. A vote on the business being closed takes place by 1 a. m. of the following day. Devised in 1912 and first used in the House of Commons in 1913 during the Naval Aid Bill debate, closure was subsequently used 18 times before 1982 , including four times during the 1956 Trans-Canada Pipeline debate . Time...

closure

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Deborah H. Roberts

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
339 words

...extant endings may be interpolations. Our uncertainties about ancient closural convention in turn lead us to disagree about whether in fact we do possess the actual endings of works such as Herodotus ' Histories , Euripides ' Iphigenia at Aulis , Lucretius ' De Rerum Natura , and Catullus 51 . Even when we have the ending we may have difficulties in assessing closure. Closure may be unexpected or false, undercut or ironized; it is often hard to interpret the effect on closure of the audience's knowledge of later events in the continuing myths from...

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A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
417 words

...the obvious (in this case educational) means to achieve closure—attempting to exclude people, instead, on other grounds (such as those of gender or ethnicity). One other problem with closure theories stems from the uneven distribution of reward within a group practising closure, as for example in the case of the communist nomenklatura , where rewards to those in the lower reaches were questionable to say the least. The best overall assessment of closure theory is Raymond Murphy’s Social Closure: The Theory of Monopolization and Exclusion ...

closure

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Deborah H. Roberts

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
306 words

...some extant endings may be interpolations. Our uncertainties about ancient closural convention in turn lead us to disagree about whether in fact we do possess the actual endings of works such as Herodotus ’ Histories , Euripides ’ Iphigenia at Aulis , Lucretius ’ De Rerum Natura , and Catullus 51. Even when we have the ending we may have difficulties in assessing closure. Closure may be unexpected or false, undercut or ironized; it is often hard to interpret the effect on closure of the audience’s knowledge of later events in the continuing myths from...

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
40 words

... Contact between articulators by which a flow of air is completely blocked: e.g. between the lips in the articulation of [p] or [m]. Distinguished as a degree of stricture from close approximation and open approximation...

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A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
290 words

... 1. A satisfying sense of completion or completeness. 2. ( structural closure ) The extent to which a narrative form is linear, self-contained, and leads to a final resolution of all the issues. A property associated with the conservatism of classical realist texts that some modern literary narratives avoid, preferring anti-closure. Narrative forms characterized by closed structures are often perceived as having masculine connotations : see closed forms . See also narrative closure ; compare open forms . 3. The processes by which a ...

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A Dictionary of Law (9 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Law
Length:
47 words

...closure n. The curtailing of debate on a question, particularly in the House of Commons, by carrying a motion (which cannot itself be debated) "that the question be now put". The result is that a vote on the question under debate must be taken immediately. Compare guillotine ....

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A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
61 words

... / cloture Any procedure for limiting or curtailing debate in a legislature, forcing the matter to a vote even when there are members still wanting to speak. One form in the United Kingdom is the ‘ guillotine ’ resolution which restricts discussion on the remaining clauses of a government bill. Used to save parliamentary time by preventing filibusters...

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The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
129 words

... . As used in philosophy, a domain of objects is closed with respect to some relation just in case the relation never holds between sets of objects some of which are inside the domain and some outside. One of the most common applications is to causal closure: physicalists hold that physical events are closed under causation—nothing physical is caused by anything non-physical such as mental events, nor do physical phenomena cause mental phenomena. In logic, a domain is closed under a set of operations if the result of applying any of those operations to a...

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The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
124 words

... , the sense of finality or conclusiveness at the end of a work or some part of it. In addition to the basic fulfilment of expectations raised by particular texts, some ancient genres show marked closural conventions; examples include the choral coda of Euripidean tragedy, the plaudite of Roman comedy ( see comedy, latin ), and the rhetorical peroration. Aristotle tells us in his Poetics that a plot must have an ending, which follows from something but from which nothing follows, and that different endings suit different genres. The most telling...

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The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... The sense of completion or resolution at the end of a literary work or part of a work (e.g. a stanza or closed couplet ); or, in literary criticism, the reduction of a work’s meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations. The contrast between ‘closed’ texts and ‘open’ texts has been a common topic of modern criticism, as in Roland Barthes ’s theory of the lisible...

Closure

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Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... The ending of a house of commons debate by a Member rising and saying: ‘I beg to move that the question be now put.’ The chair is not bound to accept the motion. The procedure was introduced in 1881 after Charles Stewart Parnell , leader of the Irish parliamentary party, conducted a deliberate policy of obstructing parliamentary business. As a result of his tactics, one sitting in February that year lasted from 4 pm on a Monday until 9.30 am the following Wednesday. See also filibuster ; guillotine ; kangaroo...

closure

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The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Classical studies
Length:
139 words

... What constitutes a sense of finality at the end of a literary work is first and briefly considered by Aristotle in the Poetics . He defines an end as that which follows naturally from something else and from which nothing else follows. In a later chapter on drama he states that genre determines what kind of ending is suitable. Study of the various genres of ancient literature reveals the existence of certain conventions of form and expression in endings, but the lack of obvious finality in the concluding parts of some notable literary works has led...

Closure

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B. H. Smith and A. Watson

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...of closure” and the creation of “open text” that “emphasizes or foregrounds process” and actively engages the reader. One can profitably compare and contrast the self-consciously disruptive rejection of closure as it operates in mod. Western poetry with a long-standing Chinese poetics of incompleteness and suggestiveness. See organicism . Bibliography B. H. Smith , Poetic Closure: A Study of How Poems End (1968) ; P. Hamon , “Clausules,” Poétique 24 (1975) ; Concepts of Closure , spec. iss. of YFS 67 (1984) ; L. Hejinian , “The Rejection of Closure,”...

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A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

... 1. Any structure that is designed to close off the opening of a container and prevent loss of its contents. 2. In North America, the process of preparing a landfill site for closure, which involves covering it with soil and vegetation such as...

closure

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Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
128 words

... ; cloture . The general noun corresponding to the verb close is closure . E.g.: “Don't expect closure —an end to the argument over whodunit—if O.J. Simpson's first feverishly hyped day on the witness stand Friday means anything.” Bill Boyarsky , “The Spin: More Ambiguity than Answers,” L.A. Times , 23 Nov. 1996 , at A21. In AmE, cloture is standard in but one narrow sense: “the procedure of ending debate in a legislative body and calling for an immediate vote.” E.g.: “In one Congress in which he was Senate majority leader, the minority leader,...

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