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Overview

civil society

The set of intermediate associations which are neither the state nor the (extended) family; civil society therefore includes voluntary associations and firms and other corporate bodies. ...

civil society

civil society   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
15 words

... society In Hegel, forms of social association intermediate between the family and the...

Civil Society

Civil Society   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
851 words

...of civil society. Hegel regarded the market, or “the system of needs,” together with public laws, the courts, the police, and corporations as the pillars of civil society, and civil society to be the ethical foundation of the state. John Locke 's pre-Scottish enlightenment contract-based conception of civil society is often contrasted with Hegel's post-Scottish enlightenment conception. For Locke, civil society was equivalent to political society. For Hegel, in contrast, political society, and the state are made possibly by the development of civil society. In...

civil society

civil society   Reference library

M. J. Inwood

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
227 words

... society . From Aristotle's koinōnia politikē down to Locke's ‘political or civil society’ and Ferguson's ‘civil society’, this term indicated civilized, political society in contrast to barbarism, paternal authority, and the state of nature. It was translated into German as bürgerliche Gesellschaft , which also suggests ‘bourgeois society’, and thus came, in Hegel , to indicate economic and social arrangements in contrast to both the state and the family. Civil society in this sense did not become apparent before the emergence of an economy...

civil society

civil society   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
397 words

...index of a strong civil society, so too, high levels of social capital . With the decline in the membership and political power of national trades unions on most Western countries, civil society is often said to be the contemporary basis for centre- and left-political movements, although critics also point out that there is nothing necessarily progressive about civil associations. To have civil society, citizens need to have civil rights recognized and defended by the state (such as the right of free speech). Some believe the civil society has been eroded by...

civil society

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A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... society The private or non-governmental dimension of the organization or administration of the state. It is generally contrasted with political society, which is the coercive, governmental dimension of the state. But the separation of civil and political society is artificial. As Marxist political theorist Antonio Gramsci argues, the reality is that the state is a dual system comprising both a coercive and consensual apparatus. Standard elements of civil society include trade unions, workers cooperatives, and mutual aid societies. The concept has a...

Civil Society

Civil Society   Reference library

Christopher Candland

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,849 words

...civil society is often contrasted with Hegel's post–Scottish Enlightenment conception. For Locke, civil society was equivalent to political society. For Hegel, political society and the state make possible the development of civil society. Gramsci's innovation was to see how civil society, as a structure of public conceptions about the running of society, can serve to provide the hegemony to complement the state's coercive capacity. In much contemporary use, civil society is antithetic to the state. Democracy and human-rights activists prize civil society...

Civil Society

Civil Society   Reference library

Christopher Candland

The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,849 words

...of civil society is often contrasted with Hegel's post-Scottish-Enlightenment conception. For Locke, civil society was equivalent to political society. For Hegel, political society and the state make possible the development of civil society. Gramsci's innovation was to see how civil society, as a structure of public conceptions about the running of society, can serve to provide the hegemony to complement the state's coercive capacity. In much contemporary use, civil society is antithetic to the state. Democracy and human-rights activists prize civil society for...

civil society

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A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...civil society The institutions and organizations that, while separate from formal government and the state, nonetheless exert authority and influence . It consists of organizations and institutions—including schools, hospitals, churches, political parties, trade unions, mass media, cultural, and voluntary associations. They all influence public health to different degrees. Obviously, civil society and the state constantly interact. ...

civil society

civil society   Quick reference

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
195 words

... society The set of intermediate associations which are neither the state nor the (extended) family; civil society therefore includes voluntary associations and firms and other corporate bodies. The term has been used with different meanings by various writers since the eighteenth century, but this main current usage is derived from Hegel . One definitional characteristic in current usage is the distinction between political parties and civil society. Whereas political parties seek direct political power, via election and public office, civil society...

civil society

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A Dictionary of Social Work and Social Care (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... society The intermediate sphere between the public world of the state and the private world of households and individuals. It encompasses a range of educational, political, economic, cultural, and social institutions, such as voluntary organizations , religious groupings, and trade unions. A flourishing civil society is usually depicted as a positive element in society, as it is seen as indicative of individuals coming together outside their households in a way that counterbalances the power of the state. In contrast, the most influential formulation of...

civil society

civil society   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
236 words

...Civil Society Relations, ‘We the Peoples: Civil Society, the United Nations and Global Governance’, of 11 June 2004 ( U.N. Doc. A/58/817 ); the Secretary-General's response of 13 September 2004 ( U.N. Doc. A/59/354 ) endorsed that report and made concrete proposals for its implementation. The Glossary in the Panel of Eminent Person's report contains an excellent definition of civil society: ‘the associations of citizens (outside their families, friends and businesses) entered into voluntarily to advance their interests, ideas and ideologies. The term does...

Civil Society

Civil Society   Reference library

Karen Hagemann and Sonya Michel

The Oxford Encyclopedia Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
1,867 words

... Society . The term “civil society” is commonly used today to refer to a sphere or space apart from both the home and the state where debate and discussion can freely occur. Civil society has a long and complicated history, throughout most of which it was associated with men. Invented in seventeenth‐ and eighteenth‐century Europe as a key concept of enlightened political theory by thinkers such as John Locke , Adam Smith , Charles‐Louis de Secondat , the baron of Montesquieu , and Immanuel Kant , civil society underwent considerable revision at the...

Civil society

Civil society   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
400 words

...study by Gabriel Almond and Sydney Verba ( 1963 ). Robert Putnam and proponents of social capital emphasise civil society as the crucial arena where shared social norms and trust are developed. The United Nations affirms the importance of civil society: its Millennium Development Goals ( MDG s) emphasise ever-increasing partnerships of the United Nations with Civil Society Organizations ( CSO s). Modern notions of civil society are deeply embedded in, and supportive of, Western liberalism , emphasising limited government, the rule of law , ...

Civil Society

Civil Society   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

... Society Considerable definitional vagueness exists regarding civil society, in part due to the concept's long history and multiple underlying schools of thought. Issues of multiculturalism and social justice are central to the term. Civil society is also a global concept, referring to the supranational sphere. The social work profession can benefit from collaborative action with local civil society associations in working to dismantle structural inequality and enhance opportunities for disadvantaged populations. civil society; social capital; networks;...

civil society

civil society   Reference library

Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
575 words

...of discourse on civil society. While one branch followed Ferguson and Smith in stressing the economic system character of civil society, the other branch followed Charles-Louis Montesquieu , Jean-Jacques Rousseau , and Alexis de Tocqueville in stressing social relations entered into by autonomous agents. In this conceptualization, civil society is a realm of intermediate associations that stand between the individual and the state. Georg Hegel and later Karl Marx saw these types of associations as intrinsically partial: civil society was an incomplete,...

civil society

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A Dictionary of Sports Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
170 words

... society A sphere of social organization and cultural activity that is neither market-led nor state-provided, and that takes place in public life rather than private spheres such as the family. It is associated with voluntary sector organizations and activity and other forms of public participation, straddling political and non-political forms of association and associativity . A strict definition might include in civil society organizations such as corporations or businesses, but in the analysis of sport's contribution to civil society it is the emphasis...

Civil Society

Civil Society   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
2,439 words

...present “rediscovery” of the idea of civil society including a good historical overview by John Keane and a feminist perspective by Carole Pateman. Oz-Salzberger, Fania . Introduction. In Adam Ferguson's An Essay on the History of Civil Society . Cambridge and New York, 1999. Seligman, Adam . The Idea of Civil Society . New York, 1992. Recounts the story of civil society from Locke and Hume through Kant, Marx, Weber, and Durckheim in order to elucidate present debates on the notion. Taylor, Charles . Modes of Civil Society . Public Culture 3, no. 1 (Fall...

Civil Society

Civil Society   Reference library

The Islamic World: Past and Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
594 words

...of civil society. Without effective social institutions of their own, citizens lack the means to challenge the authority of an autocratic government. Consequently, many scholars consider the existence of civil society to be a reliable indicator of the level of democracy in a country. Determining Compatibility. The Western political experience has demonstrated that civil society is critical to the advancement of democracy. In recent decades, Muslims have engaged in heated debate about the usefulness of importing the concept of civil society. The debate...

civil society

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A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... society A much-debated term to describe a mix of value-driven organizations—voluntary and community organizations, charities, social enterprises, cooperatives and mutual organizations—which aim to promote social, environmental, or cultural objectives; ‘the arena of collective social interaction situated between the state, market, and household’ (McIlwaine ( 2009 ) in R. Kitchin and N....

civil society

civil society (in relation to China)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Politics and International Relations in China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
114 words

...civil society ( in relation to China ) A portion of a country’s social fabric that is separate and independent from government and business. It is highly underdeveloped in China due to the country’s one-party state and the authoritarian proclivities of the Chinese Communist Party , in conjunction with a legal basis characterized by rule by law . Eradicated during the Cultural Revolution (1966–76) , it is now evident by non-governmental organizations lobbying for healthcare reform and combatting environmental pollution . Such groups are focused upon specific...

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