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Overview

City

The City of London financial district, or ‘square mile’. This area includes the Bank of England, the London Stock Exchange, Lloyd's, and the headquarters of many UK banks, insurance ...

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A Dictionary of Celtic Mythology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

... . As the indigenous populations of Celtic nations were country people, there were no metropolises founded by Celtic peoples. Most cities in Celtic lands were established by foreigners; the Romans built oppida in Celtic lands, and the Danes were the first inhabitants of Dublin. Despite this, there are a number of imaginary cities in the narratives of different Celtic lands. The Bretons speak of the underwater city of Ys . The Irish speak of the city belonging to Manannán mac Lir in the Land of Promise as well as the four cities of the Tuatha Dé Danann :...

Cities

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The Oxford Companion to World Mythology

...god. Cities have often been symbolically arranged with gates, for instance, representing the four directions. Cities had gates because they were walled, the walls forming symbolic and actual barriers against the chaos of the surrounding world. So it is that feminine pronouns are often attached to cities, whose gates were in constant danger of being penetrated in war. Defeated cities were ravished. In mythology, as in real life, the “fall” of a city is high tragedy, as in the case of Troy . Cities, like humans, can be subject to deep corruption, as in the case...

Cities

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Kala Seetharam Sridhar

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...economy, limits to city growth occur due to the inflation of urban site rents. Rents are aggravated in India’s cities because of the existence of rent control (as in many cities worldwide) that diminishes the incentives of property owners to maintain their property, artificially restricts the supply of rental housing, and limits city growth. Finally, city-specific characteristics, such as land area, and whether or not they are situated in the coastal regions of the country do influence their growth. Everything else remaining the same, cities in the coastal...

Cities

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The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,501 words

...the aged ( gerokomeia ), and inns ( xenodocheia ). As cities found public works more difficult to support, governors came to build or restore them. Such activity was concentrated in provincial capitals, which often prospered at the expense of lesser cities. Urban prosperity varied considerably, from Constantinople, which could draw on the revenues of the empire, to cities in exposed regions like North Africa (e.g., Carthage in the 7th C.) and the Balkans, where ruin and contraction were common. Cities were administered by councils or curiae , which relied...

Cities

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Benjamin L. Carp

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... “The town,” wrote the Scottish thinker David Hume in My Own Life , is “the true scene for a man of letters.” Like Edinburgh and Glasgow, American cities became creative Enlightenment outposts, casting envious glances at London and its intellectual climate. After the American Revolution, these cities would play an ambiguous role in the continuance of the Enlightenment. At no time was the ferment of the American Enlightenment exclusive to the cities; nevertheless, urban centers were always vital for generating and transmitting Enlightenment ideas....

Cities

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A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
85 words

... A book written in 2002 by Ash Amin and Nigel Thrift in which the authors challenge conventional views of cityscapes, urban order, and urban futures. Amin and Thrift argue that cities are normally seen as complex but ordered, in large part because of the coordinating activities of governments and the presence of large businesses. Against this they enjoin readers to focus on everyday practices in households, public spaces, communal enterprises, and so on, as well as the non-cognitive elements of urban...

Cities

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The Oxford Companion to the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,025 words

...Samaria was a small fortified city. Beginning perhaps in the eighth century BCE , a unique type of city‐state developed in Greece. The citizens normally included merchants, free workmen, and landowners in the surrounding countryside. In Athens and some other cities, a tyrant or an oligarchy sometimes ruled, at other times a democratic assembly. The pattern is found in Asia Minor and in colonies established by the older cities. Each city‐state tended to be fiercely independent and jealous of its rivals, yet in some regions cities formed themselves into...

Cities

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
19,325 words
Illustration(s):
5

... . [ To survey the city as a form of human settlement in the ancient Near East, this entry comprises five articles: An Overview Cities of the Bronze and Iron Ages Cities of the Persian Period Cities of the Hellenistic and Roman Periods Cities of the Islamic Period The overview article treats the emergence of cities and the process of ubanization; the remainder treat the development of cities and urban life through time in specific regions .] An Overview Cities were the physical focus for the rise of civilization in the ancient Near East. While...

Cities

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Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
4,820 words

...nobles moved to cities, fueling luxury trade and stimulating cultural life. Cities were also centers of political power and administration, although until the Revolution, the center of authority in France was Versailles, about ten miles outside of Paris. These aspects being self-evident, what is more crucial here is the growing awareness of the city by its inhabitants as an interrelated complex, and the desire to make cities better places in which to work and live. The Concept of Enlightened Urbanism There was much criticism of existing cities by leading...

Cities

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
5,527 words

...class antagonism in a civic Reformation. ——. Turning Swiss: Cities and Empire, 1450–1550 . Cambridge, 1985. Analysis of political context of the Reformation for the south German cities. Cameron, Euan . The European Reformation . New York, 1991. Valuable and readable survey. Chapter 15 discusses cities. De Vries, Jan . European Urbanization, 1500–1800 . Cambridge, Mass., 1984. Explores economic interrelationships of cities. Written for a scholarly audience. Greyerz, Kaspar von . The Late City Reformation in Germany: The Case of Colmar, 1522–1628 ....

Cities

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...city district was some 16 by 13 kilometers (10 by 8 miles), as marked by boundary stelae. The central part of the city was at the waterfront. The city commanded a large cultivable area that could support as many as 25,000 farmers and 15,000 nonfarming inhabitants. The actual population of Akhetaten was perhaps closer to 20,000—but with offerings, tribute, and taxes from distant lands, a much large population could have been supported. Tell el-Amarna comprised three cities: northern, southern, and central, with the king's house as its center. The North City...

Cities

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Oxford Essential Quotations (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
492 words

... Cities see also American Cities , British Cities , Country Woe unto them that join house to house, that lay field to field, till there be no place. The Bible (Authorized Version, 1611) Isaiah ch. 5, v. 8 woe unto them join house to house lay field to field As a remedy to life in society I would suggest the big city. Nowadays, it is the only desert within our means. Albert Camus 1913 – 60 French novelist , dramatist , and essayist Notebooks 1935–42 (1962) Slums may well be breeding-grounds of crime, but middle-class suburbs are...

Cities

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George MODELSKI

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History
Length:
4,179 words

...cities were world cities, and can they meaningfully be regarded as the centers of the world system of their time? (3) What are the major outlines and trends in the system of world cities? What Is a “World City”? World cities can be defined as cities of world importance, actually and potentially. The source of thatimportance might be either a city’s size or its position in the functioning of the world system. Size can be reckoned principally in terms of population numbers (compared with other cities of that same era)—and with distinctions made among...

Levitical cities

Levitical cities   Reference library

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
20 words

...cities . Cities in Erez Israel prescribed in the Hebrew scriptures for the tribe of Levi (Numbers 35....

Surrogate Cities

Surrogate Cities   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
20 words

...Surrogate Cities . Suite for sampler and orchestra ( 1994 ) by Heiner Goebbels , portraying a ‘vertical’ slice of city...

garden cities

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A Dictionary of British History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
118 words

...cities Planned estates had been built by Robert Owen and Titus Salt in the earlier 19th cent., and by the Cadbury family at Bournville in the 1880s. Garden cities were conceived by Ebenezer Howard . His plan was for limited‐size cities built on municipally owned low‐cost agricultural land. The centre of each city would be a garden, ringed by civil and cultural amenities, city hall, museum, library, and theatre. Howard envisaged clusters of garden cities, linked by railways, and powered by new low‐pollution electricity. In 1899 the Garden City...

Victorian cities

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The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
152 words

...Victorian cities were also the scene of great political struggles. See Asa Briggs , Victorian Cities (1963) , H. J. Dyos and M. Wolff (eds), The Victorian City: Images and Realities (2 vols, 1973) , Peter Sanders , English Industrial Cities of the Nineteenth Century (1984) , and, for a comprehensive study of one large city, Clyde Binfield et al., The History of the City of Sheffield, 1843–1993 (3 vols, 1993...

submerged cities

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A Dictionary of Celtic Mythology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...cities . An aspect of the various flood legends is the belief that whole cities have been inundated, of which the best-known Celtic examples are Ys in Finistère from Breton tradition and Cantre'r Gwaelod on Cardigan Bay in Welsh tradition. In Ireland there are thought to be cities under Lough Neagh , Lough Ree , and the Shannon River; Shannon City reappears every seven years and mortals who see it are doomed to die. Lancarrow in Cornish tradition is a city submerged beneath the sands. See also TÍR FO THUINN [Land Under Wave]. See also ...

free cities

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The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
157 words

...cities (Germany) Cities in the German Empire such as *Basel , *Cologne , *Strasbourg , *Speyer , *Worms , *Mainz , and *Regensburg that successfully freed themselves from the control and government of a bishop before the end of the 13th century. Bremen, *Hamburg , *Besançon , Toul, Verdun, *Metz , and *Cambrai are also sometimes included in this group. Gradually, they turned to the king or emperor as overlord, without being subjected to him as were so-called Reichsstädte (imperial cities); for instance, they never were subjected, as were the...

garden cities

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June Cochrane

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
274 words

...in the capitalist system. His plan was for limited-size cities built on municipally owned low-cost agricultural land. The centre of each city would be a garden, ringed by civil and cultural amenities, city hall, museum, library, and theatre. Shops and other facilities would be built under glass, with residential and industrial areas on the outer edges of the city. Howard envisaged clusters of garden cities, linked by railways, and powered by new low-pollution electricity. In 1899 the Garden City Association was inaugurated. In 1941 it was renamed the...

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