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cinema

1. A building in which films are shown, containing at least one auditorium in which an audience watches together. 2. Films produced for viewing by the ...

CINEMA

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Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
12 words

... abbr. for colour interactive editor for multiple alignments; see alignment editor...

cinema

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
165 words

... Motion pictures as an industry and artistic pursuit. For much of its history, cinema has been commercially dominated by Hollywood . Public showings of silent moving pictures, with live musical accompaniment, began in the 1890s, but speech was not heard in a full-length film until The Jazz Singer ( 1927 ). By then cinema was big business with mass appeal. In Germany and Russia, startling technical innovations showed the creative possibilities of the medium. The 1930s saw the widespread introduction of colour. The growth of television in the USA during...

Cinema

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The Grove Encyclopedia of American Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,249 words

...matched by innovations in cinema design. It was some years before the function of the cinema had much influence on its plan. The advent of “talking pictures” ( The Jazz Singer in 1927 ) made a fan-shaped auditorium acoustically desirable, but it was not adopted for the plan of every new cinema. By the 1920s, American-style distribution methods, especially the block booking of cinemas (which created “circuits” and eventually cinema chains), had been introduced into Europe. It was also in the USA that the two main strains of cinema design emerged, known as...

cinema

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A Dictionary of Film Studies (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
158 words

... [ Greek kinema , motion] 1. Films in general. 2. Film as an art form. 3. The moving picture industry; all the institutions of film production, distribution, and exhibition. 4. A building in which films are exhibited, a film theatre; in US usage, a movie theatre. The term is an abbreviation of cinematograph, a film camera invented in the 1890s that also served as a film projector and a film processor. Probably the earliest meaning of cinema (or kinema) was a place where films were exhibited: this usage is recorded as early as 1899 , but was...

cinema

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Douglas J. Allen

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
589 words

... was the most influential mass medium in the first half of the 20th cent. In world terms, British cinema has never been regarded highly, constantly overshadowed by Hollywood, and with only the occasional international breakthrough, such as producer Alexander Korda in the 1930s, Ealing films in the 1950s, and the James Bond films in the 1960s. Only in non-fiction has British cinema been a world-leader, with John Grierson pioneering the documentary film with Drifters ( 1929 ) and his subsequent work with the Empire Marketing Board and GPO Film Unit....

Cinema

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,696 words

...committed to using cinema as a tool for education, cultural awareness, and the representation of Africa on the global stage. This commitment remains closely linked to the objectives of contemporary francophone African cinema. Contemporary African cinema continues to play an important social, cultural, political, and economic role. Current themes include education, women’s rights, AIDS awareness, issues of immigration, and globalization, as well as entertainment and cultural explorations. Through digital technology and the growing “world cinema” market, African...

Cinema

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The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
952 words

...as those of the ‘cinéma de qualité’ (also known as the ‘cinéma de papa’), though recent revaluations of its leading directors ( Claude Autant‐Lara , René Clément , Henri‐Georges Clouzot ) have been rather kinder to their work. Gangster movies, made by such directors as Yves Allégret , Jacques Becker , and Jean‐Pierre Melville , were an important counterweight to the more overt production values of the ‘cinéma de papa’, and also fed into the Nouvelle Vague's output. The Nouvelle Vague, the most important movement in post‐war French cinema, is the subject of...

Cinema

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Stefanie Van de Peer, Sara Saljoughi, Lamia Ben Youssef, and Eylem Atakav

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
10,546 words

...crucial years in Arab cinema. The tendency to minimize women's contributions to mainstream cinema was compensated by a strong sense of emancipation and anti-establishment movements in art house cinema. In 1968 two vital manifestos crossed paths in Arab cinema: Third Cinema and New Arab Cinema. Both movements intended to liberate cinema from the domination of the mainstream. Third Cinema reacted against the constraints of Hollywood, but failed to liberate women. New Arab Cinema succeeded in its goal of setting Middle Eastern cinema free from patriarchal...

cinema

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The Oxford Companion to Irish History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,103 words

...to cinemas in Northern Ireland, with the result that films were sometimes freely available one side of the border but banned on the other. The 1930s also saw a boom in the building of cinemas to profit from the huge popularity of sound films. Construction peaked in the late 1930s when it was clear that ‘cinema exhibition’ was an industry with a future and cinemas were built in all large and most small towns. Unlike Great Britain, where a duopoly of ownership dominated the industry, the ownership of Irish cinemas was less centralized, with most cinemas owned...

Cinema

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
4,492 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Sadoul, Georges , ed. The Cinema in the Arab Countries . Beirut: Interab Centre of Cinema & Television, 1966. Pioneering account of various national cinemas. Shafik, Viola . Arab Cinema: History and Cultural Identity . Cairo: American University in Cairo Press, 1998. Illustrated study that provides extensive coverage of cinema in the Arab world. Sen, Krishna . Indonesian Cinema: Framing the New Order . London: Zed Books, 1994. Study of Indonesian cinema as an aspect of national culture. Tapper, Richard . The New Iranian Cinema: Politics, Representation and...

Cinema

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The Oxford Companion to Italian Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
1,082 words

...decision to abandon the cinema in favour of television. The 1960s and early 1970s also saw the emergence of women film-makers for the first time since the silent period, notably Lina Wertmueller and Liliana Cavani . Until the late 1970s Italian cinema could still be considered a national cinema. It produced films in a variety of genres which both addressed national concerns and offered a comprehensive image of Italy to audiences elsewhere. But about 1980 a decline set in. The mass audience was deserting the cinema. Traditional popular genres, such...

cinema

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The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,505 words

...Criticism , 3rd edn (1995) Edward Murray , The Cinematic Imagination: Writers and the Motion Pictures (197) David Robinson , World Cinema: A Short History , 2nd edn (1983) David Shipman , Cinema: The First Hundred Years (1993) Sue Thornham , Passionate Detachments: An Introduction to Feminist Film Theory (1997) Christopher Williams , ed., Realism and the Cinema (1980) Peter Wollen , Signs and Meaning in the Cinema , 2nd rev. edn...

Cinema

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
8,049 words
Illustration(s):
2

...S. National Identity in Indian Popular Cinema, 1947–1987 . Austin: University of Texas Press, 1993. Clover, Carol . Men, Women, and Chainsaws: Gender in the Modern Horror Film . Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1992. Cui, Shuqin . Women through the Lens: Gender and Nation in a Century of Chinese Cinema . Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 2003. De Lauretis, Teresa . Alice Doesn't: Feminism, Semiotics, Cinema . Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1984. Diawara, Manthia . African Cinema: Politics and Culture . Bloomington and...

cinema

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Encyclopedia of Semiotics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,588 words

...cinema stemmed from his reaction to the film theorist and historian Jean Mitry's two‐volume Esthétique et psychologie du cinéma (The Aesthetics and Psychology of the Cinema, 1965 ). For Metz, Mitry's study was the great synthesis of the humanistic film theory of the time, but it also marked the end of an era. Following Hjelmslev and Roland Barthes , Metz proceeded to address a recurring issue of humanist scholarship: the often offhanded remark that cinema was a “language” with its own syntax and grammar. By strategically demonstrating that in cinema...

cinema

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The Concise Oxford Companion to English Literature (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Literature
Length:
471 words

...frequently re‐filmed, making them classic in a new ‘intermedial’ sense. While most writers since the mid‐20th century have had some involvement with cinema, either working on scripts or having their works adapted, the relationship was traditionally considered fraught, with Scott Fitzgerald the most celebrated of many supposed casualties of Hollywood. Graham Greene pioneered a new relationship with cinema, writing such original screenplays as The Third Man , and scripting many of his own stories and novels, as Paul Auster continues to do, while Harold...

cinema

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The Oxford Companion to English Literature (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature
Length:
490 words

...re‐filmed, making them classic in a new ‘intermedial’ sense. While most writers since the mid‐20th century have had some involvement with cinema, either working on scripts or having their works adapted, the relationship was traditionally considered fraught, with Scott Fitzgerald the most celebrated of many supposed casualties of Hollywood. However, Graham Greene pioneered a new relationship with cinema, writing such original screenplays as The Third Man , and scripting many of his own stories and novels, as Paul Auster continues to do, while ...

Cinema

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The Oxford Companion to Indian Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,154 words

... : At least four conduits, not mutually distinct, confirm the symbiotic links between theatre and film in India. The formal points to the fact that the earliest cinema in most Indian languages was straightforward filmed theatre, followed by a more complicated phase when cinema drew conventions from stage practice. The second path, of individual employment opportunities, began with the late silent movies and early years of sound, when practically every major Indian theatre practitioner worked in films, including numerous front-ranking dramatists who adapted...

cinema

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Oxford Reader's Companion to Hardy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
321 words

... . The fact that his novels are all strongly plotted love stories with an abundance of dramatic action, combined with the picturesque and ‘period’ interest of their settings, has made Hardy a favourite source for cinematic treatment. There is even a sense in which his narrative and descriptive technique, with its varying use of ‘close-up’ and ‘long shot’, its fondness for unexpected ‘camera-angles’ and its propensity to ‘frame’ scenes and figures in, for instance, a window or an open door, may be described as ‘cinematic’, though all of his novels were...

Cinema

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James WICKS

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...Cinema, 1984–1993 While fourth-generation directors in the 1980s continued to make reflective films, such as Sacrificed Youth (director, Zhang Nuanxin , 1985 ), the first graduates from Beijing Film Academy, including Tian Zhuangzhuang and Zhang Junzhao , burst onto the scene in 1984 with Chen Kaige ’s Yellow Earth , featuring cinematography by Zhang Yimou . The term fifth-generation cinema primarily refers to the early films of these graduates, and this cinema was referred to as “new Chinese cinema” in the 1980s to distinguish it from cinema...

black cinema

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A Dictionary of Film Studies (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
161 words

...cinema Films produced by filmmakers of African or Afro-Caribbean origin, primarily in the US ( see black cinema (us) ) and Britain ( see black british cinema ). In film studies black cinema has been central to writing on race and representation . In the context of work on national cinema , the role of black filmmakers, stars, and genres in the development of specific film industries has been an important component of revisionist film history . From the 2000s, a focus on migration and diasporic cinema has tied discussion of black cinema in the...

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