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chariot

[Ar] A light two‐wheeled war vehicle usually carrying a warrior and a driver pulled by horses. Clumsy four‐wheel prototypes drawn by four asses can be seen in the Uruk Period of ...

Chariot

Chariot   Quick reference

A Concise Companion to the Jewish Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
146 words

... The vehicle seen by the prophet Ezekiel (Ezekiel 1), representing, in Jewish mysticism , the realms on high into which the soul of the mystic is transported. The Hebrew for ‘chariot’ is Merkavah , and the Rabbinic name for this type of mystic gnosis is Maaseh Merkavah (‘the Work of the Chariot’), as distinct from speculation on the theme of the divine creation, which is called Maaseh Bereshit (‘the Work of Creation’). The mystics who attempted this ascent of soul are known as the yoredey Merkavah , the literal meaning of which is: ‘those who ...

chariot

chariot   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
111 words

... [Ar] A light two‐wheeled war vehicle usually carrying a warrior and a driver pulled by horses. Clumsy four‐wheel prototypes drawn by four asses can be seen in the Uruk Period of Mesopotamia and are figured on the royal standard of Ur . Lighter two‐wheeled versions appear in the Near East in the 17th century bc associated with the Hyksos , Kassites , and Hurrians . The Mycenaeans adopted the chariot in Greece, and from there such vehicles spread rapidly into other parts of Europe. In China, the earliest chariots date to the 13th century bc . The...

chariot

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A Dictionary of Celtic Mythology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

... , charioteers . . Warriors ride in chariots in early Irish and Welsh narratives because most of these were composed before the saddle was introduced. A grave in which chariots were buried with their owners has been found at Waldalgesheim, Germany. The Irish god most likely to be called ‘the charioteer’ is Manannán mac Lir , but Conall Anglonnach is also a charioteer. Cúchulainn 's faithful charioteer was Láeg. The name Cairbre might mean...

chariot

chariot   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...learnt to shoot from an unstable platform by practising on a rocking stool. Chariots were often employed in large numbers, for example at the battle of Kadesh where Ramesses II allegedly fielded 2,500 against some 3,700 Hittite vehicles. The huge bas-relief monument at western Thebes which records his victory represents the pharaoh himself as a chariot rider driving his enemy before him. This propaganda version of events probably conceals the true tactical use of light chariots, which was to shower opposing forces with missiles, to create gaps in their...

Chariot

Chariot   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
1,186 words
Illustration(s):
2

... . Term applied properly to a light, fast, horse-drawn vehicle with two spoked wheels, which was used in ancient warfare, hunting, for parade and cult purposes and, in some cultures, for racing. Some four-wheelers have, incorrectly, been called chariots. 1. Bronze Age. Early Aegean chariots may be divided into three types. Box chariots are illustrated on stelai, seals and signet rings from the shaft graves at Mycenae ( c. 1600– c. 1500 bc ; Athens, N. Archaeol. Mus.). While preserving most of the basic features cited above, the so-called dual chariot (...

chariot

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A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
138 words

...generally armed with bows or javelins. In northern Europe, however, the chariot was used to carry into battle soldiers who fought on foot. A popular tactic was to equip chariot wheels with scythe blades to hack at the legs of enemy...

Chariot

Chariot   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... (Old French, ‘large car’) According to Greek mythology the chariot was invented by erichthonius to conceal his feet, which were those of a dragon. Mythological characters were drawn in their chariots or cars by the following: Admetus by lions and wild boars bacchus by panthers ceres by winged dragons cybele by lions diana by stags juno by peacocks neptune by sea horses pluto by black horses The sun by seven horses (the seven days of the week) venus by doves Chariots of the Gods? A book ( 1968 ) by the Swiss writer Erich von Däniken ( b.1935 )...

chariot burial

chariot burial   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
84 words

... burial [MC] The high status that seems to attach to the ownership and use of a chariot is reflected in the fact that some warriors (perhaps leaders) were buried with their vehicles. Graves containing chariots have been found in the Shang Dynasty of China from the mid 13th century bc , from the 7th century bc in Cyprus, from around 500 bc in the Rhineland of central Europe, and from the 4th century bc in eastern England ( Arras Culture ). See also wagon burial...

chariot racing

chariot racing   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sports Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
582 words

...of which is dedicated to chariot racing. Five competitors steered their chariots, and the organizer, Achilles, provided prizes. Chariot racing of this kind remained the preserve of a small elite, performing and competing as an enhancement of their already well-established reputations for courage, and in acknowledgement of their physical expertise, though it could generate excitement among spectators. A four-horse chariot race—the quadriga —was established in the Olympic Games in Greece in 680 bc . Four-foal and two-foal chariot races were added in the 4th...

Chariot Racing

Chariot Racing   Reference library

Wolfgang DECKER

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World Sport (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
2,256 words

...for races to consist of eight or twelve chariots. That allowed each faction to field teams of at least two chariots per race even in smaller stadiums. One can easily imagine that a field of only four chariots ( singularum ) called for tactics very different from those required when each faction had two or three chariots racing at once ( binarum and ternarum , respectively). When a faction had two or three chariots in the race, the drivers were able to work together for their advantage and to disadvantage the chariots of rival factions. The usual distance for...

Chariot Racing

Chariot Racing   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,565 words
Illustration(s):
1

... Racing Detailed accounts of organized chariot races can be found in the earliest Greek literature. Homer's lengthy description of the funeral games for Patroclus in book 23 of the Iliad gives pride of place to the tethrippon , the four-horse chariot event, a prominence paralleled at the Panhellenic games. According to tradition, chariot racing was introduced in the twenty-fifth Olympiad ( 680 bce ), a late addition that may reflect the growing regional importance of the Great Games and their ability to attract competitors and audience from a broader...

chariot-races

chariot-races   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Classical studies
Length:
582 words

...bc . The Roman chariot-races, instituted in imitation of the Greek, came to be one of the great entertainments of the Roman world. The Roman racing chariot was similar to the Greek, except that the board forming the front was higher. Chariot-races began at Rome in republican times and were held in the Circus Maximus, where the lanes were divided by a low wall known as the spina . Chariots competed in heats of seven laps, usually six chariots at a time. (For the method of starting the races at Rome see circus .) In republican times the chariots belonged to...

Chariot (barley)

Chariot (barley)   Reference library

Colin J. West

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... (barley) . Chariot is a UK barley variety that was prevalent in the 1990s and 2000s. It was a hugely successful spring variety bred by Plant Breeding International (PBI), the successor to the UK state-owned breeding station in Cambridge (now part of seed-breeding and seed-selling company RAGT Seeds Ltd.). Chariot was bred as a cross between the variety Dera and an unnamed crossing strain, itself a cross between Carnival and Atem. Armed with resistance to mildew, yellow rust, brown rust, and scald (Rhynchosporium), it showed much-improved disease...

Chariot Races

Chariot Races   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
421 words

... Races (ἱπποδρομίαι, θεωρίαι ἱππικαί, τὰ ἱππικά). Roman-style chariot racing was Byz.'s most popular spectator sport from the 4th to the 7th C. Held at hippodromes , races were divided into morning and afternoon sessions. Four teams of four horses competed. A charioteer , sporting the color of his faction (Blue, Green, White, or Red), drove each team. Women and religious were discouraged from attending. The considerable expense of mounting chariot races may have been borne by the city in the 4th C. As circuses spread through the empire, perhaps along...

horse‐ and chariot‐races

horse‐ and chariot‐races   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
304 words

...and chariot‐races In the funeral games for Patroclus the chariot‐race is the premier event (Homer Iliad 23). The heroes drive two‐horse chariots normally used in battle over an improvised cross‐country course, round a distant mark and home again. Similar funeral games for other heroes are recorded. But, despite the story of the race by which Pelops won his bride, equestrian events were not the oldest in the historic Olympia festival ( see olympic games ). Pausanias (3) records the introduction of four‐horse chariots in the 25th Olympiad ( 680 bc...

horse- and chariot-races

horse- and chariot-races   Reference library

John Kinloch Anderson

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
418 words

...and chariot-races In the funeral games for Patroclus the chariot-race is the premier event ( Hom. Il. 23. 262–538). The heroes drive two-horse chariots normally used in battle over an improvised cross-country course, round a distant mark and home again. Similar funeral games for other heroes are recorded; and heroes as well as gods were remembered at the Panhellenic festivals. Malicious ghosts ( Taraxippoi , ‘horse-frighteners’) sometimes panicked the horses. But, despite the story of the race by which Pelops won his bride and kingdom ( see ...

Riders in the Chariot

Riders in the Chariot   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
711 words

...in the Chariot , a novel by Patrick White , was published in 1961 and won the Miles Franklin Award. Set mainly in the Sydney suburbs of Sarsaparilla and Barranugli , it deals with the lives and final spiritual meeting of four ‘illuminates’: Mary Hare, an elderly spinster; Mordecai Himmelfarb, a Jewish refugee from Germany; Ruth Godbold, a housewife; and Alf Dubbo, a tubercular part-Aborigine. Miss Hare, the small, unattractive and unloved daughter of incompatible parents, lives on in the crumbling mansion Xanadu built by her half-mad father, Norbert...

chariot

chariot   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Language reference, History of English
Length:
21 words

... †cart, wagon; stately vehicle for the conveyance of persons. XIV. — (O)F. chariot wagon, augm. of char CAR . Hence charioteer...

chariot

chariot n.   Reference library

Green's Dictionary of Slang

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Language reference
Length:
315 words

...) 18: The first chariot my mate claps his eye on is a taxi. 1979 ‘ Iceberg Slim ’ Airtight Willie and Me 31: He just let his chariot drive itself. 1981 J. Ellroy Brown's Requiem 14: I left him there, got into his chariot, and pulled out onto Mariposa. 2000 Guardian G2 31 Jan. 16: My chariot is a beautiful Mercedes Cabriolet . ▪ In compounds chariot-buzzer ( n. ) [ buzzer n. 1 (1)] a pickpocket who specializes in the passengers of an omnibus; thus chariot-buzzing . 1859 Hotten Dict. of Modern Sl. etc. 18: chariot-buzzing, picking...

chariot

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New Oxford Rhyming Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Language reference
Length:
139 words

... • peart • immediate , intermediate • idiot • collegiate , intercollegiate • orgeat • Eliot • affiliate • foliate , trifoliate • aculeate , Juliet • Uniate • opiate • chariot , Harriet, Judas Iscariot, lariat, Marryat • compatriot , expatriate, patriot • heriot , Herriot • commissariat , lumpenproletariat, proletariat, salariat, secretariat, vicariate • inebriate • Cypriot • baccalaureate , laureate, professoriate • appropriate • licentiate • satiate • initiate , novitiate, patriciate • associate • cruciate • Cheviot • soviet • ...

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