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central tendency bias

Can occur when managers are evaluating the performance of their staff (typically by using a 5-point scale) but fail to differentiate sufficiently between individuals. The tendency is to ...

central tendency bias

central tendency bias   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Resource Management (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
87 words

...central tendency bias can occur when managers are evaluating the performance of their staff (typically by using a 5-point scale) but fail to differentiate sufficiently between individuals. The tendency is to score everyone around the midpoint of the scale, and not use the extremes. The result of this is sometimes called the central tendency bias. In order to counteract the central tendency bias, some organizations use a forced distribution , which obliges managers to place a certain percentage of employees at the top and bottom of the...

central tendency bias

central tendency bias  

Can occur when managers are evaluating the performance of their staff (typically by using a 5-point scale) but fail to differentiate sufficiently between individuals. The tendency is to score ...
Islam, Reform, and the New Arab Man

Islam, Reform, and the New Arab Man   Reference library

Hichem Djait

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
2,890 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...playing a minor role in the great theatre of Arabism, as the diverse tendencies of Arab neo-modernism would have it. One cannot deny to the individual Arab, if and when he wishes, the possibility of interiorizing Islam as a religion, a source of moral inspiration and a metaphysic, without falling into a narrow materialism devoid of any consideration for the validity of religious action. No systematic de-Islamizing of conscience, then, but a de-Islamizing of the central and operative core of the society. However, it is clear that an interiorized Islam...

General Introduction

General Introduction   Reference library

John Barton and John Muddiman

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
4,980 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...by uncovering their unconscious bias. Many of the commentators in this volume are aware of such dangers in biblical criticism, and seek to redress the balance by asking about the contribution of the books on which they comment to contemporary concerns. They are also more willing than critics have often been to ‘criticize’ the text in the ordinary sense of that word, that is, to question its assumptions and commitments. This can be seen, for example, in J. Galambush's commentary on Ezekiel, where misogynist tendencies are identified in the text. 4. A...

Kinship and Kingship: The Early Monarchy

Kinship and Kingship: The Early Monarchy   Reference library

Carol Meyers

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
20,793 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...more subtly and successfully than explicit history writing could, the moral questions inherent in the concentration of power in the hands of a few. Recognizing the complexity and diversity of the biblical sources for the early monarchy and acknowledging their biases does not, however, mean discarding them as lacking in historical value. On the contrary, some passages exhibit features of archaic language going back nearly to the time of the events that they narrate. Others contain details about procedures and propositions that reflect aspects...

Israel among the Nations: The Persian Period

Israel among the Nations: The Persian Period   Reference library

Mary Joan Winn Leith

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
21,095 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...groups, and foreign religions that motivated Persian policy. Rather, Persian policy was driven by enlightened self-interest. By reconciling the central power with local subjects, the Persians strengthened their empire. Another way of assessing the decree of Cyrus is to look at the visual arts. Cyrus's appeals to Marduk in the cylinder and to Yahweh in the biblical decree demonstrate the Persian tendency to co-opt local religious and political traditions in the interest of imperial control. The artistic record corroborates this. Margaret C. Root...

1 & 2 Kings

1 & 2 Kings   Reference library

Walter Dietrich, Walter Dietrich, and Walter Dietrich

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
40,434 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...a separate source. These known sources seem to have been written in a rather sober style and are likely to be historically reliable—individual mistakes, a certain pro-palace slant, or an occasional erroneous transcript by the Deuteronomists excepted. 5. Another much more clearly biased source is the obviously pro-Solomon ‘Book of the Acts of Solomon’, named in 1 Kings 11:41 . A large number of the reports in 1 Kings 3–11 seem to have stemmed from it. Besides pure information (e.g. about the districts of government in 1 Kings 4:7–20 ), it also included...

1 Chronicles

1 Chronicles   Reference library

H. P. Mathys, H. P. Mathys, and H. P. Mathys

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
48,015 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...number was probably multiplied by ten by the Chronicler ( cf. 19:18 ). vv. 15–17 , the list of David's highest officers is appropriately placed after David's wars, since military ranks play a central role in it. v. 17 , the Chronicler allows David and Solomon to perform priest's tasks, although in general Chronicles distinguishes itself from earlier texts in its tendency to put greater distance between the roles of the king and the priests. This leads to David's sons becoming ‘chief officials in the service of the king’, rather than priests, a vague term...

Transitions and Trajectories: Jews and Christians in the Roman Empire

Transitions and Trajectories: Jews and Christians in the Roman Empire   Reference library

Barbara Geller

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
14,334 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in southern Judea, the region of biblical Judah, and lasted from 132 to 135 ce . Here, too, the causes, character, and course of the revolt are imperfectly known. The pagan, Christian, and rabbinic sources are mostly later, are often inconsistent, and have their respective biases and concerns. But recent discoveries at sites in the Judean desert, including coins and letters from the rebel forces, have allowed historians to look anew at the revolt. The leader of the revolt was Simeon bar Kosba, or Kosiba, referred to in Christian sources (and...

Churches in Context: The Jesus Movement in the Roman World

Churches in Context: The Jesus Movement in the Roman World   Reference library

Daniel N. Schowalter

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
17,885 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...interpretation of Domitian's reign is decidedly negative, Domitian may have been popular with the people and especially with the troops, whom he treated with great generosity. He regularly clashed with senators and other elites, and his terrible reputation reflects the upper-class bias of the sources for his reign—writers like Tacitus, Suetonius, and Pliny the Younger. An anti-imperial perspective is evident in these sources, but the horrors they describe were not reserved only for senators. Suetonius also mentions harsh actions taken against the Jews (...

Psalms

Psalms   Reference library

C. S. Rodd and C. S. Rodd

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
62,266 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...is even more difficult, since it is almost entirely a churchy word in modern English. Although NRSV retains ‘righteousness’ in many places, REB prefers ‘justice’ and NJB has a number of synonyms, including ‘right’ and ‘upright’. Sometimes, however, the Hebrew word has a bias in favour of the helpless ( Snaith 1944 : 68–74; in post-biblical Hebrew it came to mean ‘almsgiving, benevolence’ ), and translators have tried to capture this. Hence Ps 65:5 : ‘deliverance’ and 35:28 : ‘saving power’, REB. Moreover, the meaning of the word also approached...

inflationary bias

inflationary bias  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The bias towards inflationary measures that is sometimes held to characterize any monetary policy conducted according to the discretion of the policy-making body, as opposed to one governed by fixed ...
forced distribution

forced distribution  

Is a technique used by some organizations when evaluating the performance of staff. Typically, in performance evaluation systems, managers will rate the individual performance of each member of staff ...
inflationary bias

inflationary bias   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Finance and Banking (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...bias The bias towards inflationary measures that is sometimes held to characterize any monetary policy conducted according to the discretion of the policy-making body, as opposed to one governed by fixed pre-announced rules. Most obviously, where monetary policy is set by government a determination to maintain price stability may be compromised by short-term electoral pressures, such as a desire to reduce unemployment. The wish to eliminate inflationary bias has been a major factor in the recent tendency for government to cede responsibility for...

inflationary bias

inflationary bias   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Business and Management (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
119 words

...bias The bias towards inflationary measures that is sometimes held to characterize any monetary policy conducted according to the discretion of the policy-making body, as opposed to one governed by fixed pre-announced rules. Most obviously, where monetary policy is set by government a resolve to maintain price stability may be compromised by short-term electoral pressures, such as a desire to increase consumer spending or reduce unemployment. The wish to eliminate inflationary bias has been a major factor in the recent tendency for government to...

Hindsight Bias in Political Decision Making

Hindsight Bias in Political Decision Making   Reference library

Rüdiger F. Pohl and Edgar Erdfelder

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Political Decision Making

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
9,355 words

... 2017 ). With respect to hindsight bias, Musch ( 2003 ) found that the effect (assessed in a hypothetical design) was positively related to field dependence, the tendency for a favorable self-presentation, the participants’ conscientiousness, and their need for predictability and control. These relations were, however, not observed when hindsight bias was assessed in a memory design. This methodological constraint might explain why several other studies failed to find an impact of individual differences on hindsight bias (see Musch & Wagner, 2007 , for a...

forced distribution

forced distribution   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Resource Management (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
196 words

...expectations to seriously underperforming. A forced distribution or ranking requires managers to put a designated percentage of staff within each category and this is designed to prevent managers from taking the ‘easy option’ by rating everyone in the middle (the central tendency bias ). Advocates claim that a forced distribution or ranking can raise performance and help organizations retain control of total salary costs because the proportion of employees receiving a given level of salary increase can be calculated in advance. Critics argue that not...

objectivity

objectivity   Reference library

Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
508 words

...been a crucial subject in sociology and especially anthropology , where differences between qualitative and quantitative work are sharp and where the barriers of cultural difference are often high; and (4) Is it possible to keep research procedures free from bias? How can one minimize the tendency of questioners to solicit or steer respondents toward preconceived answers? A host of diverging and rival answers exist for each of these questions, and it is unrealistic to hope for some final consensus. Much depends on the significance accorded language or...

Food Politics

Food Politics   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,003 words

...the bias in their food and agricultural policies accordingly. In this century, Japan, Taiwan, and the Republic of Korea (South Korea) have all switched from taxing farmers and subsidizing consumers to taxing consumers and subsidizing farmers. Why these divergent policy patterns? The tendency of nonindustrial countries to subsidize food consumers is a part of what Michael Lipton has called “urban bias” ( Why Poor People Stay Poor , Cambridge, Mass., 1977 ). The political sources of urban bias have included (1) a pro-industry, anti-agriculture bias among...

JEWISH STUDIES

JEWISH STUDIES   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
591 words

...the broader tendency of many eastern European scholars to focus on the material aspects of Jewish existence using the disciplines of social and economic history, demography, and sociology. From 1925, the clearinghouse for scholarship of this nature became the Yiddish Scientific Institute (YIVO) based in Vilna. Around the time that YIVO was founded, another center of advanced Jewish learning opened in Jerusalem. The Institute of Jewish Studies of the new Hebrew University provided a home to immigrant scholars from eastern and central Europe. Most of...

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