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Overview

census returns

Subject: History

The first census for the whole of Britain, except Ireland, was taken in 1801, but no central archival material survives from that exercise or from the following censuses of 1811, 1821, and ...

census returns

census returns   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Local and Family History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
562 words

... returns . The first census for the whole of Britain, except Ireland, was taken in 1801 , but no central archival material survives from that exercise or from the following censuses of 1811 , 1821 , and 1831 . From 1841 the census has been collected by the office of the Registrar-General . A number of enumerators were appointed for each sub-district, to issue forms and collect them the day after census night, and to copy the information into books. The transcriptions, or ‘enumerators’ returns', for 1841–91 survive. Those for England and Wales are...

census returns

census returns   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
2,593 words

...Making Sense of the Census Revisited: Census Records for England and Wales, 1801–1901 (2005) , which provides a full guide to the administrative background of the census returns of England and Wales and the interpretation of the data, and Susan Lumas , Making Use of the Census ( 2002 ). The first census for the whole of the United Kingdom , except Ireland, was taken in 1801 , after half a century or so of debate over whether this would infringe individual liberties. The government was concerned to obtain an accurate picture of the country at a time of war...

census returns

census returns  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
The first census for the whole of Britain, except Ireland, was taken in 1801, but no central archival material survives from that exercise or from the following censuses of 1811, 1821, and 1831.[...]
African‐Caribbean Genealogy

African‐Caribbean Genealogy   Quick reference

Guy Grannum

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,002 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and marriages began in 1890 , and of deaths in 1925 . The returns are usually to be found in the country's registration offices. From the 1670s colonial governors were encouraged to send regular returns on the population. Most of this information was statistical, but some returns list the head of household with the numbers of free whites, free blacks, and slaves in the household. Most of these early censuses are to be found in the Colonial Office records in TNA; for example, there are censuses of heads of household for Barbados ( 1679 ), Cayman Islands (...

Tracing a Family Tree: Getting Started

Tracing a Family Tree: Getting Started   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
3,642 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...tracing a family tree has been made far easier by the availability on the Internet of the two basic sets of records for the beginner, civil registration and census returns . The state requirement to register all births, marriages, and deaths began on 1 July 1837 and continues to the present day. The earliest surviving census enumerators' books for the whole of the country are those from the census of 6 June 1841 ; they are available for study at ten‐yearly intervals until 1901 . These records are transcribed, indexed, and digitized on pay‐per‐view or...

Central Government, Courts, and Taxation

Central Government, Courts, and Taxation   Quick reference

R. W. Hoyle

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
7,753 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...them. Tax returns are emphatically not census documents; with a few exceptions, we would not expect them to name the poor, dependent children, or servants resident in households. And, as we have already remarked, taxpayers had every reason to try and evade the payment of taxes and secure their undervaluation. It has been suggested that the pre‐ 1334 lay subsidies which survive among the records of the Exchequer do so because they were called in upon suspicion of fraud. There have been doubts raised about the reliability of the 1524–5 returns from parts of...

Population Levels and Trends

Population Levels and Trends   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,124 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...history for the period 1500–1760 , particularly for the years 1640–1700 , stressing local variations and assessing sources such as parish registers, the lay subsidy assessments of 1524 and 1525 , the ecclesiastical census returns of 1563 and 1603 , the Protestation returns of 1641–2 , and the hearth tax returns of the 1660s and 1670s. Meanwhile, French historians of the Annales school, notably Louis Henry and Pierre Goubert, were pioneering techniques for the study of parish registers in establishing demographic data for the early...

Family History

Family History   Quick reference

Anthony Camp

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,329 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Genealogical Society of Utah in association with the British Genealogical Record Users’ Committee in 1988 , to transcribe and index the whole of the 1881 census returns for England, Wales, and Scotland was followed by that of The National Archives to make similar indexes for the 1901 English and Welsh returns, and then by various commercial enterprises to transcribe all the available census returns and to make them available on fee‐paying bases on the Internet. They have revolutionized research into the 19th century. The centralized civil registration of...

The Twentieth Century

The Twentieth Century   Quick reference

Brian M. Short

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,083 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...content of local newspapers , or perhaps sale catalogues; but, conversely, some declines. The 1901 Census Enumerators’ Books are available, as are the 1911 census returns in digital form from The National Archives for a fee if applicants can provide an address to be sought, but excluding any sensitive information. From 2012 the full 1911 census information will be available. Because of the 100‐year confidentiality rule on the decennial census, further 20th‐century information can be derived at present only at the abstracted level of the parish or...

The Poor

The Poor   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,036 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Union records with the cooperation of volunteers from local history societies and the National Trust. Other MH records, listed alphabetically by county and within each county by union, include registers of staff 1837–1921 in MH 9. Census returns list the staff and inmates of workhouses on census nights, though in the early returns only initials were recorded. From 1904 birth certificates do not state that a birth took place in a workhouse; instead the number and the street occupied by the workhouse was recorded. Sometimes, euphemistic names were given for...

South Asian Genealogy

South Asian Genealogy   Quick reference

Abi Husainy

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
3,254 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...details on palm leaves ( 1806–12 ), registers of voters ( 1965–92 ), Sinhala newspapers ( 1862–1976 ), English newspapers ( 1832–1976 ), and Tamil newspapers ( 1864–1976 ), invaluable sources for family historians. Information about Sri Lankan census records can be obtained from the Information Unit, Department of Census and Statistics, PO Box 563, Colombo, Sri Lanka. With a growing diaspora featuring notable affluence in Europe and North America, South Asians are demonstrating a mounting determination to recover family history....

Surnames

Surnames   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,649 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Atlas ( 2003 ) is an important new tool that provides maps showing the locations of every surname recorded in the 1881 census, arranged by counties and Poor Law unions (upon which census enumerators’ districts were based). It should be the starting point for enquiries into the history of individual surnames, taking them back in time by using genealogical methods. Free maps of the most frequent 25 000 surnames in the 1881 census are also available online, but these are arranged only by counties. This web site also provides distribution maps,...

Irish Local and Family History

Irish Local and Family History   Quick reference

Kevin Whelan

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,945 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...contacts. The bibliographies of Irish family history by Edward MacLysaght , Brian de Breffny , and James Ryan are useful, as are Edward MacLysaght's various guides to Irish †surnames. Among the essential Irish genealogical sources are the 1901 and 1911 manuscript census returns , which are currently being prepared for migration to the Web; parish registers; registers of births c. 1750 onwards; and Tithe Applotment Books. While Irish genealogical records can be difficult to trace (owing to the Record Office fire), sources do exist in abundance:...

Political Economy

Political Economy   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,138 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and high pre-adolescent mortality rates—with the arithmetic series he posited for the likely maximum rate of increase in subsistence later emerging as a law of diminishing returns that was to dominate post-Smithian political economy [ see *poverty, 12 ]. As interpreted by Malthus, by his friend David *Ricardo , and by their respective followers, the law of diminishing returns entailed a defensible but (in hindsight) inaccurate assumption that improvements in technology when applied to land-using activities were only capable of postponing an inevitable...

Domestic Buildings

Domestic Buildings   Quick reference

Malcolm Airs

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,135 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...centuries, although they present a number of difficulties of interpretation. The hearth tax returns of 1662 to 1689 and the census returns for the 19th century can provide supplementary evidence of great value, and glebe terriers and faculties are informative on parsonages and other domestic buildings belonging to the Church. Beginning with Kent and Cambridgeshire in 2000 , the British Record Society is in the process of publishing the hearth tax returns for each county, but it will take a long time to complete the series. In the meantime, P. S....

12 The Economics of Print

12 The Economics of Print   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,040 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...warehouses were melted down in the war effort, signalling the end of an era—and a welcome new beginning for those who wanted to put Victorian literature and its values behind them. The Census of Production revealed that the monetary value of the paper, print, and stationery trades increased by £3,481,000 between the first ( 1907 ) and the fourth ( 1930 ) censuses. Inflation accounts for some of the rise, but not all. The number of titles published annually rose, causing murmurings of ‘over-production’ from those in the trade. The four essential factors...

Britain and America: A Common Heritage

Britain and America: A Common Heritage   Quick reference

George Redmonds

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,879 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...or Sanbornes—just one Sanbourne in Gloucestershire. The American genealogist George Sanborn is a colleague of David's. The idea that there is one correct spelling of a family name developed over a period of time, and it was not until the 1800s, when civil registration and census returns were introduced, that most names finally acquired a conventional form. The earlier changes in spelling can create real problems of identification, especially those that developed after a name had moved away from its place of origin. Most genealogists are aware of the problem...

Industrial History

Industrial History   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,499 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...machine and the mule was not made ‘self‐acting’ until the late 1820s. So much yarn was produced in the spinning mills that the domestic weaving trade expanded in an unprecedented manner as the population soared. The recording of men's occupations in parish registers and census returns leaves no doubt that in many parts of Lancashire handloom weaving continued into the middle years of Victoria's reign, half a century after powerlooms were introduced into weaving mills. But Victorian weavers could no longer pursue the old way of life in which work at the...

census follow-up survey

census follow-up survey  

Reference type:
Overview Page
In some countries, additional sample surveys are carried out immediately after a 100 per cent census of the population, and using the census returns as the sampling frame to identify a random sample ...
ranking of towns

ranking of towns  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
See W. G. Hoskins, Local History in England (3rd edn, 1984), appendix 1, which uses taxation returns from 1334, 1377, 1523–7, and 1662, and the census returns of 1801 and 1861, to list provincial ...

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