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Overview

cellular signal transduction

The pathways through which cells receive external signals and transmit, amplify, and direct them internally. The pathway begins with cell-surface receptors (q.v.) and may end in the cell ...

cellular signal transduction

cellular signal transduction   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Genetics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
106 words

... signal transduction the pathways through which cells receive external signals and transmit, amplify, and direct them internally. The pathway begins with cell-surface receptors ( q.v .) and may end in the cell nucleus with DNA-binding proteins that suppress or activate replication or transcription. Signaling pathways require intercommunicating chains of proteins that transmit the signal in a stepwise fashion. Protein kinases ( q.v .) often participate in this cascade of reactions, since many signal transductions involve receiving an extracellular,...

cellular signal transduction

cellular signal transduction  

The pathways through which cells receive external signals and transmit, amplify, and direct them internally. The pathway begins with cell-surface receptors (q.v.) and may end in the cell nucleus with ...
transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)

transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)  

A large family of intercellular signaling molecules. These proteins are serine/threonine kinases, and they act by binding receptors on cell surfaces. The factors act as dimers, and their receptors ...
cell-surface receptors

cell-surface receptors  

Transmembrane proteins on the surface of target cells. When they bind to appropriate extracellular signaling molecules, they are activated and generate a cascade of intracellular signals that alter ...
Janus kinase 2

Janus kinase 2  

A protein kinase (q.v.) that functions in cellular signal transduction (q.v.). Janus kinases phosphorlyate specific tyrosine residues in substrate proteins. The gene (JAK 2) which encodes the enzyme ...
shc

shc  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A family of proteins (~580 aa) with SH2 and SH3 domains and a tyrosine motif which, when phosphorylated, binds grb2, linking receptor tyrosine kinases with the ras signalling pathway. The shc gene ...
polycystin

polycystin  

Large transmembrane proteins (polycystin 1, PC1, 4303 aa; polycystin-2, 968 aa) with multiple splice variants that regulate calcium channels, are involved in cell–matrix interactions and may modulate ...
gene-for-gene hypothesis

gene-for-gene hypothesis  

The proposal that during their evolution a host and its parasite develop complementary genetic systems, with each gene that provides the host with resistance matched by a gene in the parasite that ...
odorant receptor

odorant receptor  

A protein molecule that resides on the cell surface of an olfactory receptor neuron (q.v.) and which binds an odorant (q.v.). Odorant receptors are encoded by distinct families of odorant receptor ...
G protein

G protein  

Any one of a group of proteins that relay signals in mammalian cells (see signal transduction). They occur on the inner surface of the plasma membrane and transmit signals from receptors on the outer ...
ubiquitin-proteasome pathway

ubiquitin-proteasome pathway  

A highly specific and regulated intracellular process that functions to recognize, tag, and break down many proteins in eukaryotic cells. In this process a protein is tagged for degradation through ...
Wnt

Wnt  

The symbol for a group of homologous genes which encode proteins that regulate cell-to-cell interactions during development. The Drosophila gene wingless (wg) controls the segmental pattern of the ...
transcription factor

transcription factor  

Any of a group of proteins that work synergistically to regulate gene activity by increasing or decreasing the binding of RNA polymerases to the DNA molecule during the process of transcription. This ...
phosphorylation

phosphorylation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Genetics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
63 words

...to appropriate target molecules. Biochemical phosphorylation reactions are used to trap energy and to form compounds that serve as intermediates during metabolic cycles. Phosphorylation is a major mechanism used by cells for the transduction of signals from protein to protein. See adenosine phosphate , cellular signal transduction , citric acid cycle , glycolysis , oxidative phosphorylation , phosphate bond energy , protein kinase...

transforming growth factor β

transforming growth factor β   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Genetics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
60 words

...growth factor β ( TGF-β ) a large family of intercellular signaling molecules. These proteins are serine/threonine kinases, and they act by binding receptors on cell surfaces. The factors act as dimers, and their receptors are also dimers. TGF-βs play a role in embryonic development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune suppression. See activin , bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) , cellular signal transduction...

guanosine triphosphate

guanosine triphosphate   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Genetics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
33 words

...triphosphate ( GTP ) an energy-rich purine nucleotide (analogous to ATP) that is required for the synthesis of all peptide bonds during translation, cellular signal transduction ( q.v .), and various metabolic reactions. See G proteins...

signal transduction

signal transduction   Reference library

Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
117 words

... transduction the process by which an extracellular signal (chemical, electrical, or mechanical) is converted into a cellular response. Typically, interaction of a hormone, growth factor, or other agonist with a specific membrane receptor leads to signal amplification by synthesis within the cell of one or more second messengers , or to activation of other downstream cascades, e.g. by phosphorylation of proteins. Chemical agonists that cross the cell membrane (e.g. steroid hormones) produce a cellular response without such amplification of the signal....

cell-surface receptors

cell-surface receptors   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Genetics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
79 words

...surface of target cells. When they bind to appropriate extracellular signaling molecules, they are activated and generate a cascade of intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cells. Cell-surface receptors are grouped into three classes: (1) receptors that are linked to ion channels, (2) receptors linked to G proteins ( q.v .), and (3) receptors linked to enzymes. These enzymes are generally protein kinases ( q.v .). See ABC transporters , cellular signal transduction , receptor-mediated endocytosis...

signal transduction

signal transduction   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Biomedicine (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...signal transduction ( signal–response coupling ) The sequence of events by which an extracellular signal such as a hormone or light brings about a change in cellular activity. It may involve binding of a molecule to a cell surface receptor that changes the properties of that receptor triggering, in turn, the production of a second messenger which then alters the activity of some effector system. In many cases the intermediate steps provide some amplification so that a single binding event triggers the flow of many ions or the production of many second...

caspases

caspases   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Genetics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
107 words

...Upon receiving a chemical signal, such procaspases break down into subunits, which are then reassembled into heterotetrameric caspases. There are two classes of caspases. The first, called upstream initiators, serve to transduce signals from the cell surface. These initiators then interact with caspases of the second class, the downstream effectors which begin to destroy key cellular substrates. The death process enters its final phase when caspases activate the breakdown of DNA. See cellular signal transduction , separase , tumor necrosis...

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