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causation

Subject: Law

N. The relationship between an act and the consequences it produces. It is one of the elements that must be proved before an accused can be convicted of a crime in which the ...

causation

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Mathematics (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021

...causation Causing or producing an effect. It is often assumed that the existence of correlation between two variables indicates causation, but this is often not the case. They may both be related to a third confounding variable...

causation

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A Dictionary of Marketing (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
18 words

... The inference that a change in one variable is responsible for an observed change in another...

causation

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A Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
332 words

...causation, quite apart from the general problem of forming any conception of what it is, include: how are we to understand the causal interaction between mind and body? How can the present, which exists, owe its existence to a past that no longer exists? How is the stability of the causal order to be understood? Is backward causation possible? Is causation a concept needed in science, or dispensable? See also constant conjunction . http://philsci-archive.pitt.edu/view/subjects/causation.html A bibliography of online philosophical papers on ...

causation

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A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
209 words

... The process whereby something changes or occurs through human action, natural events, or a combination of the two. The study of causation is virtually synonymous with the ability to offer explanations as well as descriptions of the world. Understanding what causes things to occur can also help with forecasting and prediction. Because only effects are visible, rather than the decisions or processes causing the effects, most investigations of causation rely on some combination of inference, deduction, and educated guess work on the part of an...

causation

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A Dictionary of Dentistry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Medicine and health, Dentistry
Length:
106 words

...causation n. ( causality, cause and effect ) 1. A legal term used to define whether a medical or dental professional’s actions or inaction created or contributed to a health problem. Not only must the claimant show that the defendant was in breach of his duty, but also that this breach led to the injury the claimant alleges. A causative link must be proved for the claimant to recover damages. 2. In statistics, causation indicates that one event is the result of the occurrence of the other event; i.e. there is a causal relationship between the two events....

causation

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A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
130 words

... ( causality , causal relationship ) The relationship between cause and effect: the central issue in media and communication research within the effects tradition . Deterministic theories ( see determinism ) focus on a monocausal relationship , whereby one factor is singled out as a necessary or even sufficient condition . However, such reductionist explanations are widely regarded as inapplicable to the complexity of human behaviour , where multiple factors are normally involved. A key issue is the direction of relationship . For instance,...

Causation

Causation   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the High Court of Australia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Law
Length:
1,801 words

...it is still too early to discern how the Court is likely to deal with these challenges to conventional notions of causation. Andrew Palmer Further Reading David Hamer , ‘ “Chance Would be a Fine Thing”: Proof of Causation and Quantum in an Unpredictable World ’ (1999) 23 Melbourne University Law Review 557 Nick Mullaney , ‘ Common Sense Causation: An Australian View ’ (1992) 12 Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 431 Andrew Palmer , ‘ Causation in the High Court ’ (1993) 1 Torts Law Journal 9 Jane Stapleton , ‘ Legal Cause: Cause-in-Fact and the Scope of...

causation

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The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
2,156 words

...fundamental nature of causation. The debate was itself a result of the current of thought that rejected the scholastic Aristotelian world-view. The four-fold Aristotelian account of formal, final, material and efficient causation began to be replaced by a conception of (non-volitional) causation as mechanism. Like any such generalization, there were notable exceptions: Ralph Cudworth adopted a position whereby causation involved the imposition of ‘plastic natures’, which reflected a different ancient heritage of neo-Platonism: causation is ultimately a form...

causation

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A Dictionary of Law (10 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Law
Length:
658 words

...death. Therefore the defendant’s behaviour did not contribute in any way to the resulting death. Causation is a question of both (1) fact and (2) law, and in both cases this is a question for the jury to decide: 1. Factual causation: it must be shown that, “but for” the defendant’s act, the event would not have occurred. The act must be a causa sine qua non (“cause without which”) of the event. a test sometimes known as the “but for” test . 2. Legal causation: the defendant’s act must be an operative and substantial cause of the consequence. His act need...

causation

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A Dictionary of Social Research Methods

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
98 words

...causation ( causality ) The capacity or tendency of an entity or process to generate some change or notable effect in another entity, process, or state of the world. If the separateness of the two entities is in doubt, the researcher can examine their ontic status (their nature) using social theory; or they can measure aspects of the two entities at two separate points in time. A third option is to examine patterns in evidence to see if one variable or entity appears to have been causal upon another; this can involve looking at unique event chains ( see process...

causation

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A Dictionary of Geography (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2023

... ( causality ) The relationship between two phenomena in which the first (the cause) brings about the second (the effect). A causal relationship usually requires: the existence of a spatial and temporal contiguity between two events, the occurrence of one event before the other, and the unlikelihood that the second event could have occurred unless the previous event occurred first. A causal relationship is also often thought to exist when a particular type of event always or almost always occurs in a particular way. A causal correlation between two...

causation

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The New Oxford Companion to Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law
Length:
922 words

... For legal purposes, it is often necessary to determine whether a particular factor, be it an act or an omission, was historically involved in an event, such as a person's death, or in the persistence of a state of affairs, such as the continuing nuisance of a tree that overhangs a neighbour's property. The law's purpose in making such determinations may not be to decide whether legal responsibility for the event or state should be allocated to that factor. Rather it may be concerned simply to determine how to avoid the event or state in future....

causation

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Australian Law Dictionary (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Law
Length:
636 words

... proximate cause . Causation is similarly required in actions for breach of contract or unjust enrichment . The notion of a right enjoyed by P, which has been interfered with by D so as to result in harm, lies at the heart of all civil law ( cf criminal law and strict liability ). In torts, causation has two separate elements: factual causation and causation at law , known as scope of liability . Factual causation or actual cause is concerned with the need to find a historical connection between the actions of D and the harm suffered by P: was D’s...

causation

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A Dictionary of Law Enforcement (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Law
Length:
626 words

...Therefore the defendant's behaviour did not contribute in any way to the resulting death. Causation is a question of both (1) fact and (2) law and in both cases this is a question for the jury to decide: 1) Factual causation: it must be shown that, ‘but for’ the defendant's act, the event would not have occurred. The act must be a causa sine qua non (‘cause without which’) of the event, a test sometimes known as the ‘but for’ test . 2) Legal causation: the defendant's act must be an operative and substantial cause of the consequence. His act need...

agent-causation

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A Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
29 words

...causation A presumed special category of causation whereby agents initiate sequences of events when they act, without the initiation being itself causally determined. See determinism , free will , libertarianism (metaphysical)...

Multiple Causation

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A Dictionary of Epidemiology (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...Multiple Causation (Syn: multifactorial etiology ) The concept that a given health state or health-related process may have more than one cause. A combination of causes or alternative combinations of causes is often required to produce the health outcome. See also causal diagram ; diseases of complex etiology ; pleiotropy ; probability of causation ; risk factor ; web of causation . ...

cumulative causation

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A Dictionary of Geography (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2023

...causation The unfolding of events connected with a change in the economy, as a consequence of the multiplier effect. Cumulative causation can be set in motion wherever the expansion of a cluster, through attraction of firms with complementary competencies, adds to its initial attractiveness. However, improvements through cumulative causation are made at a cost to some other part of the economy, and although underdeveloped regions offer the advantage of low-wage labour, these benefits tend to be offset by the agglomeration economies in the...

reverse causation

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A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...reverse causation ( reverse causality , retrocausality , backward causation ) The biological, clinical, or social processes through which a causal relationship operates in a way opposite to that which is apparent; e.g., while the observed, apparent causal relationship is that Y causes or alters C (Y→C), the true, actual relationship is C→Y. Bidirectional effects (e.g., between exposures and mediators or intermediate outcomes) may also occur (C→Y→C). When hypothesizing that a given association may be due to reverse causation, plausible and specific...

agent causation

agent causation   Reference library

Alfred R. Mele

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
128 words

...causation . A direct causal relation between agents and actions that is irreducible to causation by events and states. Advocates of agent causation usually argue that it is required for free will and moral responsibility because both an action's being uncaused and its being caused (solely) by events and states—whether deterministically or indeterministically—preclude the control needed for free, morally responsible action. The agent causal power is said to be the power to exert direct control over one's actions. What this control power is supposed to be,...

mnemic causation

mnemic causation   Reference library

John Heil

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
101 words

...causation . According to Russell ( The Analysis of Mind (London, 1921 ), a ‘kind of causation … in which the proximate cause consists not merely of a present event, but of this together with a past event’. The term originated with psychologist Richard Semon , who held that ‘mnemic phenomena’ like remembering necessitate the postulation of intervening ‘engrams’ or ‘traces’, because ‘what is past cannot operate now’, a suggestion Russell, undeterred by the prospect of action at a distance, thought unduly ‘metaphysical’. Prof. John Heil See also ...

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