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Castle

Subject: Law

The Working Dog film The Castle was released in 1997, and has been one of Australia's most successful films. It is a sweeping saga that takes the harsh Australian outback ...

Castle

Castle   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...who deprived all who entered his domains of their energy and free will. Castle Terabil or Terrible In arthurian romance a castle that stood in Launceston, Cornwall. It had a steep keep surrounded by a triple wall. It is also known as Dunheved Castle. Bouncy castle See under bounce . Doubting Castle See under doubt . Elephant and Castle See under elephant . King of the castle See under king . Maiden Castle See under maiden . Perilous Castle See under perilous...

Castle

Castle   Reference library

Concise Oxford Dictionary of Family Names in Britain

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Names studies
Length:
41 words

... 1881: 5901; widespread in England: especially Kent and Middx. English: locative name, nickname from Middle English castel , denoting someone who lived by a castle, was employed at one, or had an obligation to provide services or rent to a castle...

castle

castle   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
52 words

... Fortified house or fortress, usually the medieval residences of European kings or nobles. Castles evolved from a need for fortresses that could accommodate several households and provide shelter in war. Heavily built of wood or masonry, castles were located on a raised site and sometimes surrounded by a ditch or...

castle

castle ([MC])   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
99 words

... [MC] A general term referring to a major fortified residence or military position of the medieval period in northern Europe. Some are as large as fortified villages. The earliest examples are of the later 1st millennium ad and were modelled on the fortified homesteads of the Slavs . By the 10th century the principal residence in these places was set on a mound, and this established the style for the development of the motte and bailey castle in central and northern France in the 11th century. See also artillery castle ; quadrangular castle ; ...

castle

castle   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Idioms (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Language reference
Length:
131 words

... Castles in the air has been the version predominant in English since the late 16th century, but castles in Spain , from Old French châteaux en Espagne , was used in the late medieval period and occasionally in more recent times. The form of the saying in Old French, known from the 13th century, may refer to the fact that much of Spain in the Middle Ages was under Moorish control, so any scheme to build castles there was clearly unlikely to ...

castle

castle   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Local and Family History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
237 words

... . The term ‘castle’ is used by historians to refer to fortified buildings erected after the Norman Conquest. Hundreds of motte-and-bailey castles were erected in Britain by the Normans. They were a recent invention which had spread rapidly in Normandy. Others may date from the civil wars of Stephen's reign ( 1135–54 ). Most motte-and-baileys were subsequently abandoned, but during the second quarter of the 12th century the most important ones were converted into stone castles, surrounded by huge ditches, ramparts, and a curtain wall, and entered by a ...

castle

castle   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art Terms (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
143 words

... Originally associated with the Middle Ages, a castle is a habitation fortified for defence with towers, surrounding walls, and moats. The moat or fosse had a bridge that could be raised, leading to the gates which were protected by descending grilles known as portcullises. In front of the castle was a barbican , in tower or mound form, which defended the entrance. Inside the castle was the outer bailey or wall and gatehouse, usually containing stables and offices. The inner bailey was the innermost defence in the corner of which was the keep or ...

castle

castle   Quick reference

Oxford Dictionary of Word Origins (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Language reference, History of English
Length:
102 words

...castle [OE] Castle goes back to Latin castellum , ‘little fort’ from castrum ‘fort’. To build castles in the air [M16th] is to have daydreams or unrealistic fantasies. It comes from a Latin phrase used by St Augustine, who became bishop of Hippo in North Africa in ad 396. Another version, originally a translation from medieval French, is to build castles in Spain [LME]. This country was probably chosen because it was a distant place where it would have been extremely unrealistic to build—most of it was under the rule of the Moors at the time the...

castle

castle   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
1,054 words

...in the 1160s and 1170s to protect the castles from new trajectory missiles, and towers were built with round instead of square sides ( see barbican ; shell keep ). Some castles have been rebuilt many times over. Some early Norman castles had never been motte‐and‐baileys but were formidable stone castles from the start. The Tower of London and Colchester Castle are early examples, dating from the 1070s, which were conceived as defensive palaces . The Crown and the greater barons spent an enormous amount of money on castles during the third quarter of the 12th...

Castle

Castle   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,397 words

...15th century), and display was indeed the main factor that kept alive the desire to build in castle fashion from the 16th century to the present. Castle manifestations after 1500 can be divided into three categories: buildings still with some degree of real fortification; domestic buildings of contemporary style with some element of castle allusion; and mock castles, where the whole structure was designed externally to look like a medieval castle. As with a true castle the whole object in the last was that the owner should live in it, normally commanding a...

castle

castle   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
1,600 words
Illustration(s):
1

...rulers continued to repair and extend the great crusader castles, too. Castles also played an important role in Japan. Although the variety of castle types has been stressed, Dover castle (Kent) is a model of castle development. Originally an Iron Age hill fort, then a Roman fort, then an English burh , in the 12th century Henry II had a tall, square, stone tower built in the middle of the defences. To this were added encircling ‘curtain’ walls. A severe French siege in 1216–17 , which the castle withstood, led to further strengthening of the walls and...

castle

castle   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Architecture (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
319 words

.... An entrance to a castle could also have the extra defence of a barbican . Around the walls, themselves often raised on sloping embankments or ramparts ( valla ) were usually fossae or ditches , sometimes filled with water ( moat ), and over the moat was a drawbridge that could be raised. Smaller, less important castles might have the central keep (of modest proportions) set on a motte surrounded by a bailey contained within palisaded earthworks and surrounded by a ditch. 2. Country-house, named after a feudal castle, or a large country...

Castle

Castle   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
9,019 words
Illustration(s):
1

...fortification . ) The castle is one of the best-known and least understood of buildings. The word no longer refers exclusively to the true castle of the Middle Ages; rather, one may still hear and read of Iron Age ‘castles’ (e.g. Maiden Castle, Dorset) and Roman ‘castles’ or find the word applied to 16th-century Tudor coastal forts in England. While every age had fortresses, the true castle is a unique form pertaining exclusively to the Middle Ages of Latin Christendom, or, more specifically, to the feudal period. The medieval castle is defined as the...

castle

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A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
282 words

...these quarters meant that the courtyard had to be protected by a line of towers joined by ‘curtain’ walls. In the 12th century the concentric castle (one ring of defences enclosing another) was developed from the model of the castles built by the Crusaders, who themselves had copied the Saracens. At the end of the 13th century, Edward I of England, following a policy of subduing north Wales, built a series of castles, including those at Caernarvon, Conway, Harlech, and Beaumaris. Design improvements saw the further development of rounded towers, which were...

Castle

Castle   Reference library

Dictionary of American Family Names (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Names studies
Length:
70 words

... US frequency (2010): 20534 English: topographic name from Anglo-Norman French, Middle English castel ‘castle, fortified building or set of buildings’, especially the residence of a feudal lord (from Late Latin castellum , a diminutive of castrum ‘fort, Roman walled city’). The name would also have denoted a servant who lived and worked at such a place, or someone who had an obligation to provide services or rent to a castle...

Barnard Castle

Barnard Castle (England/UK)   Quick reference

Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...Barnard Castle , England/UK ( Castellum Bernardi ) Named after Barnard Balliol, who rebuilt the castle in 1112–32...

Trim castle

Trim castle   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
62 words

...castle A Norman *castle in Ireland that served as administrative centre for Meath. Hugh de Lacy began construction in 1173 . Trim is Europe’s largest Norman castle, with a well-preserved stone keep and curtain wall. In the later MA, Trim marked the northern boundary of the Pale. Phyllis G. Jestice T. McNeill , Castles in Ireland (1997). T. Reeves-Smith , Irish Castles ...

Bluebeard's Castle

Bluebeard's Castle   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
32 words

...Bluebeard's Castle ( A Kékszakállú herceg vára ; ‘Duke Bluebeard's Castle’). Opera in one act by Bartók to a libretto by Béla Balázs after a fairy tale by Charles Perrault (Budapest, 1918...

Caister Castle

Caister Castle   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to Literary Britain & Ireland (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature, Society and culture
Length:
56 words

...Castle Norfolk A 15th‐c. castle 5 m. NW of Great Yarmouth, built by Sir John Fastolf ( Shakespeare's Falstaff), on whose death ( 1459 ) it passed to John Paston ( 1421–66 ) by a will disputed by other claimants. Many of the Paston Letters were written from the castle by John's wife, Margaret , during his absence in...

Neidpath Castle

Neidpath Castle   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to Literary Britain & Ireland (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature, Society and culture
Length:
59 words

...Castle Borders A 13th‐c. castle on the A72, 1 m. W of Peebles, on a steep hillside above the Tweed. Walter Scott , who often visited the castle, and Thomas Campbell both wrote ballads entitled ‘The Maid of Neidpath’ about the tragedy of the girl so altered by illness that her lover passed her by, and broke her...

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