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Overview

carbohydrate by difference

Historically it was difficult to determine the various carbohydrates present in foods, and an approximation was made by subtracting the measured protein, fat, ash, and water from the total ...

carbohydrate by difference

carbohydrate by difference   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

... by difference Historically it was difficult to determine the various carbohydrates present in foods, and an approximation was made by subtracting the measured protein , fat , ash , and water from the total weight. Carbohydrate by difference is the sum of nutritionally available carbohydrates (dextrins, starches, and sugars), nutritionally unavailable carbohydrate (pentosans, pectins, hemicelluloses, and cellulose), and non-carbohydrates such as organic acids and lignins...

carbohydrate by difference

carbohydrate by difference  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Historically it was difficult to determine the various carbohydrates present in foods, and an approximation was made by subtracting the measured protein, fat, ash, and water from the total weight. ...
A, B antigens

A, B antigens  

Mucopolysaccharides responsible for the ABO blood group system. The A and B antigens reside on the surface of erythrocytes, and differ only in the sugar attached to the penultimate monosaccharide ...
fluid retention

fluid retention   Quick reference

Food and Fitness: A Dictionary of Diet and Exercise (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...retention ( water retention ) The human body is about 60 per cent water. Everybody's fluid content is kept relatively constant at this level; excess fluid is eliminated by the kidneys. However, fluid retention increases significantly with high carbohydrate diets. When carbohydrate is stored as glycogen in muscles, extra water becomes bound to the glycogen ( see carbohydrate loading ). Excessive fluid retention is linked to some diseases (e.g. heart failure or kidney disease) and fluid may accumulate in tissues where it causes swelling (oedema) in places...

concanavalin A

concanavalin A   Reference library

Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
214 words

... jack bean . It is separable from canavalin and from the minor component concanavalin B by differences in solubility. It is a crystallizable tetramer, with 27.5 kDa subunits, dissociating to a dimer below pH 5.8. Each subunit contains one binding site for Mn 2+ (or other transition metal ion), one for Ca 2+ , and one for carbohydrate (specifically α ‐ d ‐mannopyranoses or α ‐ d ‐glucopyranoses with unmodified hydroxyl groups at C‐3, C‐4, and C‐6); carbohydrate does not bind until the metal binding sites are filled. It agglutinates erythrocytes, and...

light beer

light beer   Reference library

Keith Villa

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
971 words
Illustration(s):
1

...unique differences. Although all three are light beers, Miller Lite is the lightest in regard to residual extract (carbohydrates) and Bud Light is the heaviest. Coors Light is in between. All three are lightly flavored and very dry, with each one exhibiting a hint of the unique house flavor of its respective proprietary yeast and brewing technique. All mass market light beers are made with large proportions of adjunct cereals replacing barley malt. Hop bitterness in these beers is barely perceptible, but many consumers regard them as refreshing. By the late...

hydrolysis

hydrolysis   Reference library

Ralph Hancock

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...the negative hydroxyl ion links to the positive end of the other molecule, cancelling its positive charge. There is now no difference in charge between the two larger molecules, so they no longer attract each other and can move apart. Hydrolysis does not happen by itself; it needs some input of energy. It can be brought about rather slowly by putting proteins or carbohydrates in water and heating them. The reaction can be speeded up by adding an acid or alkali, whose built-in chemical energy helps to break the bonds. The strongly acid conditions in the...

gel‐permeation chromatography

gel‐permeation chromatography   Reference library

Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
250 words

.... The separation is based mainly on exclusion effects, such as differences in molecular size and/or shape or in charge, when the stationary phase is a swollen gel. The gel used is commonly a water‐swollen insoluble carbohydrate polymer from which macromolecules are excluded and migrate without retention in the interstitial fluid. Substances of low or intermediate relative molecular mass penetrate into the gel particles to an extent that is, in most instances, determined by their molecular dimensions and the degree of cross‐linking of the gel. The...

double-labelled water

double-labelled water   Quick reference

Food and Fitness: A Dictionary of Diet and Exercise (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...dioxide output alone is estimated by calculating the difference between the two. Carbon dioxide output is converted to energy expenditure using the energy equivalent of carbon dioxide calculated using additional information on the substrate mixture respired. This information is obtained from the respiratory quotient (RQ, the ratio of the volume of carbon dioxide produced to the volume of oxygen consumed during respiration). During aerobic respiration, respiration of fat gives an RQ of 0.7, protein an RQ of 0.9, and carbohydrate an RQ of 1.0. An RQ of more than...

A, B antigens

A, B antigens   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Genetics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
262 words

...of erythrocytes, and differ only in the sugar attached to the penultimate monosaccharide unit of the carbohydrate chain. This minor chemical difference makes the macromolecule differentially active antigenically. The I A , I B , and i are alleles of a gene residing on the long arm of chromosome 9 between bands 34.1 and 34.2. The I A and I B alleles encode A and B glycotransferases, and the difference in their specificities is due to differences in their amino acid sequences at only four positions. These in turn result from different missense...

glycogen

glycogen   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
886 words
Illustration(s):
1

...which carbohydrate is stored in the body. Each molecule of glycogen is formed by the linkage in branching chains of many thousands of glucose molecules. Thus, glycogen is a natural polymer, a polysaccharide , which has a similar structure to the starch which is found in plants. Most tissues of the body are able to store small amounts of glycogen, but the main sites of glycogen storage are the liver and skeletal muscles . In both cases, glycogen is made from glucose within the cells in which it is stored, and the synthetic process is stimulated by the...

vine growth cycle

vine growth cycle   Reference library

Richard Smart

The Oxford Companion to Wine (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2023
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
810 words
Illustration(s):
1

...slowly at first, producing small leaves on each side of the shoot. This early shoot growth depends on the reserves of carbohydrates stored in the vine, but soon the leaves are old enough for photosynthesis and to produce the carbohydrates which become the tissue of further shoot growth. After about four weeks in warm climates, the principal period of most rapid shoot growth begins. Shoots may grow more than 3 cm/1 in a day, and differences in shoot length can be observed from day to day. Shoot growth slackens at flowering, 40–80 days after budbreak...

calorimetry

calorimetry   Quick reference

Food and Fitness: A Dictionary of Diet and Exercise (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...energy from fats, carbohydrates, and proteins. A new method for measuring energy expenditure has been devised. This entails drinking heavy water (it has the formula 2 H 2 18 O; normal water has the formula 1 H 2 16 O). Oxygen-18 and deuterium (hydrogen-2) are two stable, harmless isotopes that can be detected in liquids or in air. Some of the oxygen-18 is exhaled as carbon dioxide (the waste product of respiration), and some is excreted in urine along with some of the deuterium. Deuterium is lost from the body only in water. The difference between the rate of...

continuous fermentation

continuous fermentation   Reference library

George Philliskirk

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...process and beer is discharged at the other without recourse to holding the beer in a static holding vessel (batch fermentation). The advantages claimed for continuous methods include efficient plant utilization, improved carbohydrate utilization, increased throughput, and consistency. However, microbial contamination, flavor differences with batch fermented beers, and the requirement for continuous processes upstream and downstream from fermentation, particularly in wort production, are major disadvantages this method. Additionally, continuous fermentation...

vigour

vigour   Reference library

Richard Smart

The Oxford Companion to Wine (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2023

...as outlined by Smart and Robinson, and these approaches, along with scoring , can be used as a form of quality control. For an alternative approach to the assessment of vine vigour using remote sensing , see normalized difference vegetation index . The vigour of a vineyard is essentially dependent on two features: the size and health of the root system; and the pruning level. First, what grows above ground is some sort of mirror of what grows below. A vine with a large and healthy root system will have the substantial reserves of carbohydrates and balance...

root

root   Reference library

Bryan Coombe

The Oxford Companion to Wine (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2023

... Valley. The root framework supports a large number of fibrous roots which, by their continuing growth, explore the soil for minerals and water. Root density is highest in friable soil with continuing supplies of minerals, water, and oxygen. mycorrhizal fungi play an important role in increasing the surface area of the roots. Vine roots are much less dense than those of many other crop plants. Different species of vitis have different root distribution and habits, a difference that is deliberately used in the breeding of rootstocks . Dr Bryan Coombe...

cheese addiction

cheese addiction   Reference library

Meredith T. Niles

The Oxford Companion to Cheese

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...associated with sugar addiction or opioid drug addiction, for that matter. A recent review by the European Food Safety Authority found that bovine-derived opioid peptides appear to be much less potent than medically derived opioids and are not conclusively linked with negative effects, including increased risk for cardiovascular disease. See also cheese aversion and health properties . Avena, N. M. , et al. “Sugar and Fat Bingeing Have Notable Differences in Addictive-like Behavior.” Journal of Nutrition 139 (2009): 623–628. Corwin, R. L. , and...

husk

husk   Reference library

Keith Thomas

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...size difference between the central and lateral kernels. Brewers generally wish to avoid the extraction of astringent tannins and haze-causing polyphenols from grain husk. As a result, they will generally keep sparging temperatures below 77.8°C (172°F) and stop the runoff from the mash when the runoff gravity drops much below 2°P. See sparging . Barley husks are easily colonized by microorganisms, particularly molds such as Fusarium, which can produce mycotoxins and compounds that can induce gushing in beer. Barley grains protect themselves by producing...

staple foods and staples

staple foods and staples   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...in another plantains, peanut oil, and coconut; and in yet another bread, root vegetables, and meat. More restrictively, the word is often applied to the grain or carbohydrate base element(s) of a diet, excluding those foods that make the base more appetizing or which are used in cooking or processing. Further nuances emerge if one considers equivalent terms in other languages. Among those cited by Keith Botsford ( 1990 ) were: ◆ French, un aliment de base , a basic food; ◆ German, Hauptnährungsmittel , indicating ‘the most important’ item in a diet; ◆ ...

metabolism

metabolism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,089 words

...of the intake of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and oxygen, and of the excretions in the form of urea, carbon dioxide, and water, according to different dietary regimens in health and disease. In 1904 , Franz Knoop fed dogs a diet of phenyl-substituted fatty acids. The animals metabolized these compounds only with difficulty, with the result that they excreted some intermediate breakdown products. In this way, Knoop established that fatty acids are decomposed by a succession of “ a -oxidations,” each shortening the carbon chain by two atoms. This was...

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