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building materials

Greek In its developed stages Greek architecture was based on the use of finely dressed stone masonry, mainly limestone. Where available, white marble was used for the finest ...

building materials

building materials   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
496 words

...which required frequent washing. Roman Roman building practice was everywhere based on locally available materials. The only building materials widely transported in the empire were marble and timber for roofing. In Rome itself the plentiful local supplies of soft, easily dressed, volcanic tufa were used from the 6th cent. bc onwards and remained in use at all periods as a general‐purpose building material ( see quarries ). From the 2nd cent. bc travertine was quarried near Tibur . This was a fine building stone, used esp. in the later republic until...

building materials

building materials   Reference library

Richard Allan Tomlinson, John Bryan Ward-Perkins, Hazel Dodge, and Bryan R. Ward-Perkins

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,048 words

...Richard Allan Tomlinson Roman Roman building practice was everywhere based on locally available materials. The only building materials widely transported in the Roman empire were marble and timber for roofing. In Rome itself the plentiful local supplies of soft, easily dressed, volcanic tufa were used from the 6th cent. bc onwards and remained in use at all periods as a general-purpose building material ( see quarries ). From the 2nd cent. bc travertine was quarried near Tibur . This was a fine building stone, used particularly in the later...

Building Materials and Construction

Building Materials and Construction   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
2,580 words
Illustration(s):
6

... Materials and Construction Construction projects represent considerable economic investments, so the study of the materials and technology used provides insight into the priorities of the individuals and societies that sponsor the projects. The development of building practices in the Greco-Roman world can be generally characterized as moving from available natural materials, such as timber and stone, to manufactured ones, such as fired brick and concrete. With the change in materials also came a development from a simple post-and-lintel structural...

building materials and techniques

building materials and techniques   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Scottish History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,601 words

...most outstanding stone structures survive, the ordinary houses and farm buildings were still largely constructed of turf at the beginning of the 19th century. It is intended to deal with the range of building materials used in Scotland under three main headings: structure, walling, and roofing. This should illustrate the wide range of materials used and the former diversity in traditional building techniques. Structure Timber Timber appears to have been the predominant structural material in the early medieval period. The Venerable Bede ( ad 673–735 ) in his ...

Building Materials and Techniques

Building Materials and Techniques   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
17,911 words
Illustration(s):
10

... Materials and Techniques . [ To survey the history, distribution, and role of building materials and techniques throughout the Near East, this entry comprises four articles : An Overview Materials and Techniques of the Bronze and Iron Ages Materials and Techniques of the Persian through Roman Periods Materials and Techniques of the Byzantine and Islamic Periods The first provides a general introduction that treats building materials; the remainder treat the developments of particular historical periods .] An Overview Geography and topography...

building materials

building materials npl   Quick reference

Pocket Oxford Italian Dictionary: English-Italian (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Bilingual Dictionary
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Bilingual dictionaries
Length:
7 words
building materials

building materials  

GreekIn its developed stages Greek architecture was based on the use of finely dressed stone masonry, mainly limestone. Where available, white marble was used for the finest structures. Transport ...
Domestic Buildings

Domestic Buildings   Quick reference

Malcolm Airs

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,135 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...house. The actual processes of building, including design, organization of the building operation, labour relations, and building materials, as well as economics and transport, was first addressed for the medieval period by L. F. Salzman , Building in England down to 1540 ( 1952 ). Malcolm Airs applied a similar approach to the early modern period in The Tudor and Jacobean Country House: A Building History ( 1998 ), and the story has been taken forward by Richard Wilson and Alan Mackley , Creating Paradise: The Building of the English Country House,...

The Twentieth Century

The Twentieth Century   Quick reference

Brian M. Short

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,083 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...included a description of the property, which might include details of building materials, numbers and use of rooms, comments on repair and condition, as well as suitability for the purpose used, ancillary buildings and their condition, water supply and sanitary facilities, etc. Comments on the state of cultivation, drainage, land use, etc. are common for farms. On the third page sketch plans of farmsteads or industrial premises traced from the Ordnance Survey sheets gave details of buildings and their uses, although as work began to fall behind schedule in ...

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,949 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Above all else, economic developments had a profound influence on British architecture from the 1770s to the 1830s. Industrialization engendered new building types, like factories, and new material possibilities, like iron. But the former never rose to the level of architecture. Whilst Nash used iron and glass to great effect at the Brighton Pavilion, in general British architects failed to exploit new materials except where they could be used to reproduce existing idioms cheaply. Eleanor *Coade 's artificial stone statuary, capitals, plaques, friezes, and...

Historic Churches

Historic Churches   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,420 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and sometimes in the building of a new church at the edge of the park, as at Allerton Mauleverer (Yorkshire). In many other cases, the manor house has disappeared, making the reason for the siting of the church less obvious. In Norfolk and other counties where settlements were dispersed, the church may now be standing next to a manor house, or all alone, for the small village or hamlet that was associated with it has gone. When villages decayed, the parish church, being built of sturdier materials, was the last building to survive. Ruined or heavily...

Welsh Local and Family History

Welsh Local and Family History   Quick reference

D. Huw Owen

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,425 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...on Caernarfonshire ( 1956 , 1960 , 1964 ) and Glamorgan ( 1976 , 1981 , 1982 , 1988 , 1991 ). These handsome volumes contain an abundance of illustrative material with colour and monochrome plates and sequences of line drawings, plans, and sections explaining and expanding upon the detailed descriptions of distinctive internal features, and of the external appearance of a wide range of buildings and settlements , including hill forts , castles , platform houses, monastic granges , deserted villages , gentry houses, farmhouses, and cottages . Other...

Place-Names

Place-Names   Quick reference

Margaret Gelling

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,757 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... ( 1999 ). The School of Scottish Studies at the University of Edinburgh has an archive of early place‐name spellings and a collection of oral material from Gaelic‐speaking areas. The place‐names of the Isle of Man have been subjected to intense scrutiny, and have been the cause of considerable controversy. The basic material was collected by J. J. Kneen and published in six parts between 1925 and 1929 . This material was studied by a Norwegian scholar, C. J. S . Marstrander, in two publications of 1932 and 1934 . As regards early documentation, the Isle...

17 Bookbinding

17 Bookbinding   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,252 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
9

...structures 5 Non-Western bookbinding structures 6 Materials used in bookbinding 7 Bookbinding decoration 8 The bookbinding trade 9 The collecting, study, and importance of bookbindings 1 Introduction Books have needed outer covers and a means of holding them together for as long as they have existed, partly to keep their pages in the intended order, and partly to provide protection. Bookbinding embraces all the techniques that have evolved to achieve these ends, including the materials and structures employed, and the many ways in which the covers...

Consumerism

Consumerism   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
3,809 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...central as an expression of lifestyles and aspirations, as numerous satires against snobs and bon viveurs suggest. Spreading, but by no means universal, prosperity permitted more people to have a taste of more of the good things of material life; *Enlightenment [32] outlooks set greater store by the value of the material world. The face of England (and, to a lesser degree, the rest of the British Isles) was undergoing piecemeal yet substantial change throughout the eighteenth century, a process accelerating in the decades spanning 1800 . While not...

Women Local and Family Historians

Women Local and Family Historians   Quick reference

Joan Thirsk

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,549 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of William Lee's stocking frame, and explaining it in Textile History , 17/2 ( 1986 ). Women often express a lively interest in people of the past when they view, or live in, old buildings (see Frederica St John Orlebar, below), and this imaginative stimulus may well explain their notable contribution since 1900 to the history of buildings. Usually they favour buildings on a domestic, rather than monumental, scale though Ella Sophia Armitage's Early Norman Castles of the British Isles ( 1912 ) deserves to head the list for another reason, displaying...

The Antiquarian Tradition

The Antiquarian Tradition   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,837 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of annals, and most relied uncritically on previous narratives. During the 16th century the Italian Renaissance became a European movement that inspired English writers to attempt something more rigorous. A large amount of manuscript material became available upon the dissolution of the monasteries, and ruined monastic buildings stimulated curiosity about the past. Further stimuli to historical enquiry came from the Tudor myth that Henry VIII was descended from King Arthur and from the desire to prove that the Protestant form of religion had acceptable...

41 The History of the Book in Korea

41 The History of the Book in Korea   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,059 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...of woodblock printing in a society where the need for books was confined to a small readership. Cutting wooden blocks is relatively wasteful of materials, and requires that the blocks be stored for reuse, with the ever-present danger of destruction through fire. It is striking that evidence of 13 th -century metal movable type dates to the period of the Mongol invasions, when fire destroyed countless buildings and their contents. In China, by contrast, *print runs were much larger than the tens of copies normal in Korea; thus, there was little incentive...

11 The Technologies of Print

11 The Technologies of Print   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,192 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
8

...as refinements of traditional methods and materials gave way to radical developments as printing was mechanized, production speed increased, and the unit cost of books fell. During the hand press period, printing offices were generally normal houses, like the work places of weavers, joiners, and other tradesmen. The printer, with his family and *apprentices , occupied some of its rooms, and the presses and type occupied others. Some printing offices were designed to impress visitors, such as the new Clarendon Building (completed 1713 ) of the *Oxford...

Design

Design   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,178 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...as well as to guard against inferior imitations, every piece went out impressed with his name on the base. Wedgwood was never competitive in price, despite his advanced methods of production which should have reduced costs. But these were inflated by his investment in land, buildings, and machinery, as well as in research, development, and training. His marketing expenses were exceptionally high. He continued to make unique pieces, which were usually sold at a loss. Above all, he would not compromise on quality. At the same time, these very...

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