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brown earth

A freely draining, and only slightly horizonated, soil-profile type. It has a mull humus in the surface horizon and very little differentiation of horizons below. Brown earths are ...

brown earth

brown earth   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... earth ( brown forest soil ) A free-draining zonal soil associated with deciduous woodland. Generally, brown earths have a thick litter layer and a humus -rich A horizon , containing iron and aluminium sesquioxides in small, crumb-like peds . The weakly developed, lighter, B horizon contains blocky peds; there is little leaching . See Storrier and Muir (1962) Eur. J. Soil Sci. 13, 2...

brown earth

brown earth   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geology and Earth Sciences (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

... earth Freely draining, and only slightly horizonated, soil-profile type. It has a mull humus in the surface horizon and very little differentiation of horizons below. Brown earths are well weathered and slightly leached soils, with a cambic horizon in the middle part of the profile (also known as braunerde and now included in the inceptisols...

brown earth

brown earth   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Plant Sciences (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
102 words

... earth A freely draining, and only slightly horizonated, soil- profile type. It has a mull humus in the surface horizon and very little differentiation of horizons below. Brown earths are well-weathered and slightly leached soils, with a cambic horizon in the middle part of the profile (also known as braunerde and now included in the Inceptisols ). Brown-earth types of soil are very productive and, although their natural climax vegetation in humid, temperate latitudes is deciduous forest, they have been used extensively for agriculture. The soil...

brown earth

brown earth   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... earth A freely draining soil-profile type with only slight horizons . It has a mull humus in the surface horizon and very little differentiation of horizons below. Brown earths are well-weathered and slightly leached soils ( see leaching ), with a cambic horizon in the middle part of the profile (also known as braunerde and now included in the Inceptisols of the USDA Soil Taxonomy). Brown-earth types of soil are very productive and, although their natural climax vegetation in humid, temperate latitudes is deciduous forest, they have been used...

brown earth soil

brown earth soil   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

... earth soil A type of soil that develops under deciduous forest on calcium‐rich parent material, has a high base status, and lacks a well‐developed illuvial horizon...

brown earth

brown earth noun   Quick reference

New Oxford American Dictionary (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
28 words
brown earth

brown earth noun   Quick reference

Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
32 words
brown earth

brown earth  

A freely draining, and only slightly horizonated, soil-profile type. It has a mull humus in the surface horizon and very little differentiation of horizons below. Brown earths are well-weathered and ...
brown earth soil

brown earth soil  

A type of soil that develops under deciduous forest on calcium‐rich parent material, has a high base status, and lacks a well‐developed illuvial horizon.
Psychology

Psychology   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,151 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...whether the method of investigation was in any respect like that of an empirical science. The procedure appeared to be conceptual analysis of the ordinary philosophical kind. Nevertheless, Brown treated the ‘science of mental analysis’ as strictly analogous to the science of chemistry—for each tries to reduce compound substances and processes to elementary ones—and Brown thus thought that conceptual analysis and empirical scientific analysis were simply the same method applied to two different materials. Hence philosophical and scientific procedure are much...

Henry VI Part 1

Henry VI Part 1   Reference library

Randall Martin and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,505 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Cambridge, 1991); Edward Burns (Arden 3rd series, 2000); Michael Taylor (Oxford, 2003) Some representative criticism Berry, Edward I. , Patterns of Decay: Shakespeare’s Early Histories (1975) Brockbank, J. P. , ‘The Frame of Disorder: Henry VI ’, in John Russell Brown and Bernard Harris (eds.), Early Shakespeare (1961) Jackson, Gabriele Bernard , ‘Topical Ideology: Witches, Amazons, and Shakespeare’s Joan of Arc’, Renaissance Quarterly , 29 (1988) Jones, Emrys , The Origins of Shakespeare (1977) Leggatt, Alexander , ‘The Death of John...

Land

Land   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,951 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...While enclosure of commons and wastes was proceeding outside the walls of the estate park, inside the legacy of the previous generation moved towards less formal estate design. This in turn led directly into the debates amongst Richard Payne *Knight , Lancelot ‘Capability’ *Brown , and Humphry *Repton about how best to mimic unadorned nature. The landscaped park was often fitted out with bogus versions of historical remains, as the taste and sentiment for ruins of the eighteenth century persisted into the nineteenth. Even so, care was taken to divest...

Philippians

Philippians   Reference library

Robert Murray, SJ and Robert Murray, SJ

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
13,932 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...). The latter group is not identified, but they seem to be a part of the Christian community where Paul is. Clement of Rome, writing to Corinth not long afterwards ( phil e .2), says that Peter and Paul were hounded to death by envy, jealousy, and rivalry ( 1 Clem. 5.2–5); see Brown and Meier ( 1983 : 123–7 ; they also favour Rome as where Paul wrote Philippians, pp. 185–8). The trouble could well have begun with Jewish Christians who wanted the church to remain within Judaism and saw Paul's policy as misguided. Paul, however, regards all negative factors...

Colossians

Colossians   Reference library

Jerome Murphy-O'Connor, OP and Jerome Murphy-O'Connor, OP

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
10,129 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the stewardship entrusted to him by God in order to further the economy of salvation ( 1 Cor 4:1; 9:17 ). The ‘word of God’, which Paul preaches in word and deed, is now described as ‘the mystery’ ( 1:26; cf. Eph 3:1–9 ). Divinely ordained future events (for the background see Brown 1968 ), which for the false teachers were still a secret to be penetrated laboriously, in fact have already been made plain, not merely to a group of initiates, but to all believers. ‘Glory’, the brilliance of God's action in history, is the antithesis of secrecy. The content of...

John

John   Reference library

René Kieffer and René Kieffer

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
52,850 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...( 19:28 ) and comments upon his own work on earth by saying ‘It is finished’ ( 19:30 ). The burial is that of a ‘king’. A comparison between the gospels shows that Matthew follows Mark but adds his own material in order to augment the dramatic effect of the narrative. Luke is less dependent on Mark than Matthew because he has his own information. He underlines more than Matthew and Mark that Pilate considered Jesus to be innocent. The author of the Fourth Gospel probably knows Mark's account ( contra Brown 1994 ), but he has much material of his own...

10 Paper

10 Paper   Reference library

Daven Christopher Chamberlain

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,045 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...Barcham-Green , ‘ An Illusive Image: Some Thoughts about Watermarking Handmade Papers ’, TQ 62 (2007), 1–9 P. Bower , Turner’s Papers (1990) — Turner’s Later Papers (1999) — ‘ Watermark Catalogues and Related Texts: A Personal Recommendation ’, TQ 56 (2005), 42–4 B. L. Browning , Analysis of Paper , 2e (1977) N. Harris , Analytical Bibliography , www.ihl.enssib.fr/siteihl.php?page=55&aflng=en , consulted June 2007 D. Hunter , Papermaking: The History and Technique of an Ancient Craft , 2e (1978) S. I’Anson , ‘ Identification of Periodic Marks in...

Introduction to the New Testament

Introduction to the New Testament   Reference library

Leslie Houlden

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
17,403 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...scholarship has so vigorously pursued. So words that originally related to the birth of a child in the royal house in Jerusalem in the late eighth century bce ( Isa 7:14 ) are applied to the birth of Jesus many centuries later and taken to illuminate its character ( Mt 1:23; Brown 1993 ). C. The Background of the New Testament. 1. So far we have considered the idea of the NT. In terms of introduction, this has been the stage of sizing up the new acquaintance. Another important aspect of introduction lies a little behind the scenes and is often slow to...

Transitions and Trajectories: Jews and Christians in the Roman Empire

Transitions and Trajectories: Jews and Christians in the Roman Empire   Reference library

Barbara Geller

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
14,334 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...study of the last pagan Roman emperor. Brooten, Bernadette. Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue: Inscriptional Evidence and Background Issues. Brown Judaic Studies, 36. Chico, Calif.: Scholars Press, 1982. A pioneering study of inscriptions that provide evidence for the communal leadership roles of some Jewish women in late antiquity. Brown, Peter. The World of Late Antiquity ad 150–750 . New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1971. A pioneering, elegant, and lavishly illustrated historical and cultural...

1 Thessalonians

1 Thessalonians   Reference library

Philip F. Esler and Philip F. Esler

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
15,718 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...developed by modern social scientists. 5. One promising approach is that offered by social identity theory, a flourishing area of social psychology developed by Henri Tajfel and others in the 1970s and 1980s (see Tajfel 1978 ; 1981 ; Tajfel and Turner 1979 ; 1986 ; Brown 1988 ; Robinson 1996 ) and utilized in a recent monograph on Galatians ( Esler 1998 , esp. at 40–57) and in Esler ( 2000 ) dealing with Galatians and 1 Thessalonians. This theory explores the extent to which persons acquire and maintain a valued social identity, that is, that...

Introduction to the Pauline Corpus

Introduction to the Pauline Corpus   Reference library

Terence L. Donaldson

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
25,035 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...by the ancients to be the ‘end of the earth’, represented for Paul the goal of his ever westerly-pressing mission. In this connection, it is worth noting that Paul seems to have conceived of his apostolic task in the light of the Servant passages of Isaiah (see the citations or allusions in Gal 1:15; 2 Cor 6:2; Rom 15:21 ) and that the Servant's task was to bring God's salvation ‘to the end of the earth’ ( Isa 49:6 ; see further Donaldson forthcoming). In all probability, however, Paul never made it to the ‘end of the earth’. He journeyed to Rome not in...

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