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bottom-up processing

Any form of information processing that is initiated, guided, and determined by input and that proceeds in sequential stages, with each stage coming closer to a final interpretation than ...

bottom-up processing

bottom-up processing n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...-up processing n. Any form of information processing that is initiated, guided, and determined by input and that proceeds in sequential stages, with each stage coming closer to a final interpretation than the last, as in computational theories of vision that proceed from raw sensory data to more abstract cognitive operations. A clear example of bottom-up processing is provided by feature detection theory . This form of processing allows the possibility of learning from experience during the processing procedure. Bottom-up theories of perception are...

bottom-up processing

bottom-up processing   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
104 words

...-up processing A stimulus-driven mode of perception (or a phase in the perceptual cycle ) which is data-driven rather than hypothesis -led. It is driven by salient sensory data that may modify one’s current hypotheses or schemata , changing subsequent expectations . This is typical of lower levels of attention , without higher-level goal direction or motivation . It is the dominant mode when you misrecognize someone. Also, an analogous mode of inductive inference . Foregrounding this process reflects a structuralist cognitive perspective,...

bottom-up processing

bottom-up processing  

Any form of information processing that is initiated, guided, and determined by input and that proceeds in sequential stages, with each stage coming closer to a final interpretation than the last, as ...
10 Paper

10 Paper   Reference library

Daven Christopher Chamberlain

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,045 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...at the bottom to form a sheet. Hand papermaking from G. A. Böckler’s Theatrum Machinarum Novum (Nuremberg, 1661). With water-powered hammers, the linen rags are pulped. The *vatman stands at the *vat with a *mould ; the *coucher presses the *post ; the drying *sheets hang on ropes above, ready to be *sized , calendared, gathered into *reams , and packaged. Courtesy of Alan Crocker This is then passed to a second worker, the *coucher , who transfers the wet fibre mat on to a textile, usually of felt, to support it during the next process,...

11 The Technologies of Print

11 The Technologies of Print   Reference library

James Mosley

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,250 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
8

...than single types when they were made up into formes on the composing stone. Accordingly, the Linotype, together with some related machines, retained its hold on the market for newspaper and periodical composition. For the composition of books, the Monotype, which was capable of certain typographical refinements, was often favoured. 4.4 Photomechanical processes During the later 19 th century, highly complex processes were developed for the reproduction of images, some of which had a profound effect on printing processes generally. The principle was simple,...

The Psychological Role of Islam in Economic Development

The Psychological Role of Islam in Economic Development   Reference library

Muhammad Baqir Al-Sadr

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
5,229 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and fate than the concept of stewardship to God because stewardship gets to the bottom of the sense of responsibility concerning what one is made steward of. There is no responsibility without liberty and a sense of choice and an ability to master circumstances. Otherwise, what stewardship would this be if man was bound or remotely controlled? For this reason, we say that clothing the earth in the framework of heaven releases the energies of Muslim man and stirs up his potential, whereas cutting earth off from heaven annuls the sense of stewardship and...

19 The Electronic Book

19 The Electronic Book   Reference library

Eileen Gardiner and Ronald G. Musto

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,021 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...the e-book as a six-layered pyramid, with the lightest piece of interpretation at the top, and the material becoming broader and heavier with commentary and primary sources as the reader delved towards the bottom. The e-book was a self-contained construct produced by author and reader together, with comments, interpretive essays, and exchanges all holding up the piece at the top. Darnton’s article had an immediate and profound impact and became an important theoretical model. Darnton also engaged the culture of reading in the electronic environment. He believed...

40 The History of the Book in China

40 The History of the Book in China   Reference library

J. S. Edgren

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
9,024 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...left): *butterfly binding : 16 th -century Buddhist MS (Japan). D (3 rd from top right): *butterfly binding : contemporary printed book bound in traditional style (China). E (bottom left): *wrapped-back binding with original printed title label: 17 th -century printed book (China). F (bottom centre): *thread binding : 18 th -century printed book (China). G (bottom right): protective folding case, MS title label: early 20 th century (China). © J. S. Edgren but to serve the new demands of secular publishing, *butterfly binding was conceived,...

Liberation Theology: Africa and the Bible

Liberation Theology: Africa and the Bible   Reference library

Gerald West

The Oxford Illustrated History of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
5,124 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...Mbatha's woodcuts, for example, both in their form and in their images, are excellent examples of resisting conversation—of African transactions with the missionaries, colonialism, and the Bible. The woodcut, an African form, seizes and remakes the left to right and top to bottom conventions of colonial text to tell an African story of struggle from a European-brought book (the Bible). Joseph's Story in Egypt , a linocut by John Muafengejo, portrays the events of Genesis 37. The subject of slavery has a particular resonance in Africa. ...

Painting

Painting   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,778 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...At the same time, the variety of the playwright's output enabled Boydell to exhibit very different kinds of image—tragic, comic, sentimental, and erotic—alongside each other. The most ambitious and provocative canvases on show, pictures like Henry *Fuseli 's Titania and Bottom , seem indeed to have internalized and exaggerated the Shakespeare project's eclecticism. Here, a grotesque protagonist, a miniaturized male nude, and an eroticized heroine intermingle promiscuously across the picture's centre, looked at by a circle of fairies whose fashionable,...

The New Testament

The New Testament   Reference library

David Parker

The Oxford Illustrated History of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
11,025 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
9

...Aland) editors, is now in its 27th edition. With the most comprehensive small apparatus criticus , in an up-to-date format, it undoubtedly provides the best working text for anyone studying the New Testament. It is sometimes said that the comparatively few differences between Nestle–Aland and Westcott and Hort indicate that the papyri have had surprisingly little impact on the process of editing the text. However, this is partly because the process of evaluating the new materials is still under way. We do not know what changes the editors of the future...

Industrial History

Industrial History   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,499 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...close of the 18th century. The changes occurred at a slow rather than a revolutionary pace. Even in the 1820s the domestic production of woollen cloth totalled far more than the combined output from mills. In the new mill towns, workers’ houses were packed along the valley bottoms and up the hillsides near the works. But villages and hamlets grew as well as the towns, with houses clustered in folds or built along new streets, their upper ranges of mullioned windows casting light on the looms. The traditional dual occupation of the weaver–farmer flourished...

Introduction to the Old Testament

Introduction to the Old Testament   Reference library

John Barton

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
7,263 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in an age before computers, of recording every detail of the text: they compiled lists of unusual spellings, the frequency with which particular words or combinations of words occurred, and even obvious errors in the text. Their work can be seen in the margins and at the top and bottom of the text in a printed HB, in the form of many tiny comments, written in unpointed Aramaic. Their object was not to improve or emend the text they had received, but to preserve it accurately in every detail, and they succeeded to an astonishing extent. The student of the Bible...

Poverty

Poverty   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,179 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...also hired out and apprenticed children, sometimes sending them over long distances from southern towns to Lancashire cotton manufacturers. Thus the poor relief system linked the destitute with a much broader constituency of the poor, the great mass of ‘inferiors’ at the bottom of the social pyramid. In this sense, poverty was usually taken for granted as a natural state requiring neither redress nor explanation beyond providential sanction, and the particular theory of economic value on which it rested often went unstated or was left vague. Agriculture...

Forging an Identity: The Emergence of Ancient Israel

Forging an Identity: The Emergence of Ancient Israel   Reference library

Lawrence E. Stager

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
19,872 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...in a household or hired laborers. In hard economic times and periods of social disintegration, they became gangs of freebooters and bandits under the leadership of a warlord, such as Jephthah ( Judg. 11 ) or David before he became king. Whether this was a revolution from the bottom up, which resulted in the new Yahwistic faith (according to Gottwald), or whether the new faith served as the catalyst for revolutionary change (according to Mendenhall), both variants of the “peasants' revolt” hypothesis consider the participants to be insiders, not outsiders—an...

Islam and Humanism

Islam and Humanism   Reference library

Mamadiou Dia

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
6,144 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...apparatus. First, with properly Islamic elements, in making an appeal to the Islamic gnosis, particularly to Shi‘i gnosis. 7 This school has given us the notion of Plénôme , “the mysterious synthesis of the Uncreated and the Created,” which Sunni prudence has put at the bottom of the barrel, a fertile development capable of constituting the base of a theology of the dynamic relations of God to the Universe , worthy of our times; the Ismaili notion of hadd [limitation], which expresses a metaphysical hierarchy , interpreted in the same sense as...

Revelation

Revelation   Reference library

Richard Bauckham and R. N. Whybray

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
23,754 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...both from the perspective of heaven, as God sees it, and from the perspective of the final future, as God's purposes intend, the final coming of God's kingdom in all creation—Revelation liberates its readers from the dominant world-view. It exposes the idolatry that from top to bottom infuses and inspires the political, economic, and social realities in which its readers live, and calls them to uncompromising Christian witness to the true God who despite earthly appearances is sovereign. By seeing the world differently, readers are enabled to live and to die...

Ephesians

Ephesians   Reference library

J. D. G. Dunn and J. D. G. Dunn

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
17,129 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...a completed act, whereas earlier on Paul spoke of it as future ( Rom 5:9–10; 13:11; 1 Cor 3:15 ), and of Christians as those ‘being saved’ ( 1 Cor 1:18; 2 Cor 2:15 ). There salvation covered the whole process of renewal and final redemption ( Rom 8:23 ); here the thought is of the decisive character of what Christ has done and of the commitment to him and bound-up-ness with him. ( b ) Earlier too the talk of ‘works’ was always of ‘the works of the law’, that which was obligatory upon Jews as members of the covenant people—the key question being whether and how...

1 Corinthians

1 Corinthians   Reference library

John Barclay and John Barclay

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
31,224 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...( cf. 6:12 ), Paul insists on modifying it with reference to what ‘builds up’, that is, what is beneficial to others ( cf. 8:1 ). The tendencies of the élite are to protect their own interests in such matters, advancing their social position by minimum abstentions from sacrificial food; but Paul calls them to seek, first of all, the advantage of others ( 10:24 ). In the case of food sold in the meat market (which might or might not have passed through a temple in the process of slaughter), Paul encourages complete freedom: ignorance as to the history of...

Matthew

Matthew   Reference library

Dale C. Allison, Jr. and Dale C. Allison, Jr.

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
49,867 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and additional considerations do not add up to proof, and patristic tradition places neither this gospel nor the apostle Matthew in Antioch. So other suggestions have been made—Jerusalem, Galilee, Alexandria, Caesarea Maritima, Phoenicia, or, more generally, east of the Jordan (on the basis of 4:25 and 19:1 , which may view Palestine as being on the other side of the Jordan). C. Matthew's Purpose and its Setting in Judaism. 1. Following the revolt of 70 ce the Pharisees emerged dominant. They set in motion a process which was to allow Judaism to continue and...

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