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books, Greek and Roman

Books existed in Egypt long before they came into use in Greece. Systems of writing had been invented and developed for administrative purposes in both Egypt and Mesopotamia by c.3000 bc. ...

books, Greek and Roman

books, Greek and Roman   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
9 words

..., Greek and Roman ( see following page...

books, Greek and Roman

books, Greek and Roman   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
826 words

..., Greek and Roman Books existed in Egypt long before they came into use in Greece. Systems of writing had been invented and developed for administrative purposes in both Egypt and Mesopotamia by c. 3000 bc . While the Sumerians and Babylonians used clay tablets for their cuneiform scripts, the Egyptians used papyrus ( see palaeography ; papyrology, greek ) . The papyrus plant grew mainly in the Nile delta. It was used for many purposes: to make ropes, sandals, baskets, boats, and—most importantly—writing material. Papyrus remained the dominant...

books, Greek and Roman

books, Greek and Roman   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Classical studies
Length:
1,591 words

...in Egypt, a Greek-speaking area. On the other hand, Latin literature is much richer than Greek in information about books and the book trade. From the first century bc we hear of booksellers with their staffs of copyists. Cicero had his writings published by Atticus , and Horace mentions the Sosii as booksellers. The demand for books increased and it became the fashion for rich Romans to have a library. The price of books seems to have been moderate. There was no law of copyright and authors did not profit directly from the sale of their books. 5. A...

books, Greek and Roman

books, Greek and Roman   Reference library

Herwig Maehler

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
3,827 words

..., Greek and Roman Books existed in Egypt long before they came into use in Greece. Systems of writing had been invented and developed for administrative purposes in both Egypt and Mesopotamia by c. 3000 bc . While the Sumerians ( see sumerian ) and Babylonians used clay tablets for their cuneiform scripts, the Egyptians used papyrus. A blank sheet of papyrus was found in the tomb of the vizier Hemaka in Saqqara of c. 3000 bc . The oldest surviving inscribed papyrus texts are the temple accounts of Abusir of c. 2450 bc . A number of fine statues...

books, Greek and Roman

books, Greek and Roman   Reference library

Herwig Maehler

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
3,724 words

..., Greek and Roman Books existed in Egypt long before they came into use in Greece. Systems of writing had been invented and developed for administrative purposes in both Egypt and Mesopotamia by c. 3000 bc . While the Sumerians and Babylonians ( see babylonia ) used clay tablets for their cuneiform (wedge-shaped) scripts, the Egyptians used papyrus. A blank sheet of papyrus was found in the tomb of the vizier Hemaka in Saqqara of c. 3000 bc . The oldest surviving inscribed papyrus texts are the temple accounts of Abusir of c. 2450 bc . A number...

books, Greek and Roman

books, Greek and Roman  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Books existed in Egypt long before they came into use in Greece. Systems of writing had been invented and developed for administrative purposes in both Egypt and Mesopotamia by c.3000 bc. While the ...
3 The Ancient Book

3 The Ancient Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,942 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...half of the empire outside Italy has only two securely attested libraries, at Carthage in Tunisia and Timgad in Algeria. Roman libraries were laid out differently from Greek ones. The Greek library generally contained books in Greek only, stored in small rooms that basically served as stacks and opened onto a colonnade where readers consulted the scrolls. Roman culture was bilingual, so libraries were divided into two sections, one for books in Greek and one for Latin. Scrolls were stored in wooden bookcases ( armaria ), with the centre of the room kept...

36 The History of the Book in the Balkans

36 The History of the Book in the Balkans   Reference library

Aleksandra B. Vraneš

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,947 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Christianity, and Islam), and political systems (e.g. of the Roman, Ottoman, and Austro-Hungarian empires, and the Soviet bloc). 2 South Slavonic MSS and the beginning of printing The Balkans could be called the birthplace of Slavonic *literacy , which began in the second half of the 9 th century with the missionary activities of the brothers Cyril (Constantine) and Methodius, Byzantine Greeks from Thessaloniki. They introduced *Glagolitic and later the *Cyrillic alphabet, translating parts of the Bible and some service books into the Old Church...

5 The European Medieval Book

5 The European Medieval Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
9,862 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...where books had been known and valued. The nostalgic and lingering respect for Greek and Roman classical learning survived through the Middle Ages, carrying an uneasy sense that ancient knowledge was somehow unusually special and was even intellectually superior to that of later times. This theme winds in and out of the history of Christian book culture, sometimes in direct conflict and often in an uneasy partnership. The earliest adherents of Christianity grew up in a civilization familiar with Greek and Latin texts of poetry, philosophy, history, and...

24 The History of the Book in Germany

24 The History of the Book in Germany   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,033 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...books, *footnotes replaced *marginal notes . And although outside Germany *roman typefaces predominated, books in German were generally printed in *gothic and books in Latin in roman. Of the c .27,000 different books printed in the 15 th century, about 11,000 were produced in Germany, with only about 4 per cent in German. Yet works in German figured among the earliest books printed: one of Gutenberg’s first trial pieces was a German poem on the Day of Judgment, and in 1461 *Pfister printed Johannes von Tepl’s Ackermann von Böhmen and Ulrich...

7 The Book as Symbol

7 The Book as Symbol   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,981 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...danger in the afterlife and to communicate with the gods. In contrast, Curtius asserted, in classical Greece there was ‘hardly any idea of the sacredness of the book’ (Curtius, 304). Indeed in the notorious formulation in Plato’s Phaedrus (274C–276A), writing is purely functional, and fails even to perform properly that function. Knowledge exists in the mind of the philosopher: writing is a mere aide-memoire, and an untrustworthy and ephemeral one at that. Only in the Hellenistic period do the Greeks acquire a ‘culture of books’. In the later grammarians,...

16 The History of Illustration and its Technologies

16 The History of Illustration and its Technologies   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,930 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...advent of the woodcut, copper engraving and *etching were the two most important techniques for producing images for illustrations. Both were *intaglio methods and used a press exerting heavy pressure to force the dampened paper into the lines holding the ink, and hence transfer them to the surface. Etching had been invented first as a means of decorating armour, and the earliest dated print from an etched plate is of 1513 by Urs Graf . Although engraving on metal had been used by the Greeks, Etruscans, and Romans to ornament items such as bronze...

25 The History of the Book in Switzerland

25 The History of the Book in Switzerland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,936 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and the Bibliotheca *Bodmeriana in Cologny near Geneva, founded by *Bodmer , contains a number of outstanding works, including the earliest dated MS ( 1308 ) of Guillaume de Lorris and Jean de Meun’s Roman de la Rose . 2 The early modern period Situated on the borders of Germany and France, on the banks of the Rhine, Basle was ideally placed to become one of Europe’s early centres of book production. The Council of Basle ( 1431–49 ) brought about important traffic in books from abroad, and the foundation of the country’s oldest university (and...

4 The History of the Book in Byzantium

4 The History of the Book in Byzantium   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
2,204 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...in Constantinople. Bibliography [Dumbarton Oaks Colloquium ,] Byzantine Books and Bookmen (1975) N. Wilson , ‘ The Libraries of the Byzantine World ’, Greek Roman and Byzantine Studies , 8 (1967) 53–80 (repr. with addenda in Griechische Kodikologie und Textüberlieferung , ed. D. Harlfinger (1980), and further addenda (in Italian translation) in Le biblioteche nel mondo antico e medievale , ed. G. Cavallo (1988) — ‘The Manuscripts of the Greek Classics in the Middle Ages and Renaissance’, Classica et Medievalia , 47 (1996), 379–89 — The Oxford...

6 The European Printing Revolution

6 The European Printing Revolution   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,082 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...the same subject). Survival rates are also affected by a book’s physical size (small-format books, or books with few leaves are more likely to be lost), its language (Greek and Latin works were more highly valued than vernacular ones), and provenance (institutionally owned books are more likely to survive than individually owned books). Titles may be lost to war, political and administrative changes, *censorship , and occasional floods and fires. 10 The outlook now At the present time, the great majority of known incunable editions have been included in the...

28 The History of the Book in Italy

28 The History of the Book in Italy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,068 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...common ground in the same element: in a word, design. Early in 1496 , after issuing his first books set entirely in Greek, Aldus published * De Aetna with a new roman type that elaborated upon and strengthened Jenson’s already remarkable character of 1470 , and that, with refinements, culminated in the unreadable but visually splendid * Hypnerotomachia Poliphili . The type’s subsequent versions, remodelled by *Garamont , culminate in *Morison ’s Times New Roman ( 1932 ), the common default character on today’s *computer screens. Yet, it remains...

32 The History of the Book in the Czech Republic and Slovakia

32 The History of the Book in the Czech Republic and Slovakia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,050 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...wealth of burghers brought books to a wider public. As the number of book collectors and readers grew, the libraries of professional men sometimes surpassed those of the nobility. *Printing office s were established in many towns; bookselling was promoted through bookshops, markets, and *book fair s, and via lists of books in print distributed throughout the country and abroad. In addition to printing in Latin (using Roman types), Czech, and German (using Fraktur and Schwabacher), there was also printing in *Cyrillic script: the first bible in Cyrillic...

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
13,110 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...for use in the decorative arts. There is nothing to suggest that this technique was ever used to produce books or substantial literary texts in any form. These remained the monopoly of scribes in the Muslim world until the 18 th century, and the origins of Arabic typography and printed-book production must be sought not in the Muslim world itself, but in Europe. Arabic script, being cursive, presents problems quite unlike those of the Roman, Greek, and Hebrew *alphabets which preoccupied the first few generations of European typographers. Not only is a...

22 The History of the Book in France

22 The History of the Book in France   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,032 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...used an elegant roman type cast from Italian models); and the taste for elaborately decorated *initials also reminiscent of illumination (which recur in French books well into the 17 th century). Other printing cities in France were often university towns, like Angers and Tours. In most cases, however, the Church was the promoter, the resulting products being books needed for religious services: *breviaries were printed at Troyes and at Limoges, and copies of a *missal and psalter at Cluny. The patronage of the Savoy court played an important role...

Design

Design   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,178 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and Sheffield plate on a large scale, he started in the late 1760s to produce high-quality ormolu and silverware, the latter greatly stimulated by the establishment of an Assay Office in Birmingham in 1773 , largely through his efforts. Wedgwood named his new factory ‘Etruria’, on the generally but mistakenly held belief that the Etruscans made the finest antique vases. By selling ‘Vases, Urns and other ornaments after the Etruscan, Greek and Roman modells’, he aimed to become ‘Vase Maker General to the Universe’. He produced glazes which imitated Roman...

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