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bone

The skeletal tissue of vertebrates. Bone is composed of about 70% inorganic calcium salts, mostly hydroxyapatite but carbonate, citrate, and fluoride amines are also present. The organic ...

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The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science & Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Medicine and health
Length:
118 words

... The hardest connective tissue in the body. Bone consists of hard calcified matrix (mainly calcium phosphate) and collagen fibres. Over 200 bones make up the human skeleton. Bone is living material and is very well vascularized ( see Haversian system ). Bones support and protect soft body parts; they act as levers for muscles during locomotion; they store calcium and fats; and they are involved in the production of blood cells. Bones fall into four main categories according to their size and shape ( see flat bones , irregular bones , long bones , short...

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A Dictionary of Biology (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
191 words
Illustration(s):
1

... spongy bone is chemically similar but forms a network of bony bars. The spaces between the bars may contain bone marrow or (in birds) air for lightness. Bone is resorbed by cells called osteoclasts , which work in dynamic interaction with the bone-forming osteoblasts to remodel bone during growth or repair, e.g. following injury or in response to changes in loads. See also bone morphogenetic protein ; cartilage bone ; membrane bone ; periosteum . Structure of compact bone http://www.lab.anhb.uwa.edu.au/mb140/CorePages/Bone/Bone.htm Descriptions...

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Concise Medical Dictionary (10 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
183 words
Illustration(s):
1

... n. the hard extremely dense connective tissue that forms the skeleton of the body. It is composed of a matrix of collagen fibres impregnated with bone salts (chiefly calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate; see hydroxyapatite ), in which are embedded bone cells ( see osteocyte ). Compact (or cortical ) bone forms the outer shell of bones; it consists of a hard virtually solid mass made up of bony tissue arranged in concentric layers ( Haversian systems ). Spongy (or cancellous ) bone , found beneath compact bone, consists of a meshwork of...

Bone

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A-Z of Plastic Surgery

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Medicine and health, Surgery
Length:
404 words

... To maintain function, bone must regenerate. Anatomy: Bone is generated by osteoblasts. They are surrounded by their matrix and they are trapped. Once trapped they become smaller and become osteocytes. • Enchondral bone (long bones) starts as cartilage, which ossifies. • Membranous bones in the facial skeleton lay down bone directly. Membranous bones are more vascular but less strong. • Cortical bone has concentric lamellae around Haversian canals containing blood vessels. • Cancellous bone has large and small units of bone – trabeculae and...

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A Dictionary of Dentistry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Medicine and health, Dentistry
Length:
265 words
Illustration(s):
1

...long axis of the bone. Compact bone tissue Trabecular (cancellous or spongy) bone is found beneath the cortical bone and is made up of delicate bars and sheets of bone ( trabeculae ) which form a sponge-like network. Bone is subject to constant remodelling by osteoblasts and osteoclasts . Alveolar bone supports the teeth and is thin and compact immediately adjacent to the periodontal membrane, whereas the bone between the tooth roots (interradicular) is less compact. The crestal bone is the most coronal part of the alveolar bone. When the teeth are...

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The Oxford Dictionary of Idioms (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Language reference
Length:
436 words

... a bag of bones : see bag . the bare bones : see bare . be skin and bones : see skin . a bone of contention a subject or issue over which there is continuing disagreement. 🅘 The idea is of a bone thrown into the midst of a number of dogs and causing a fight between them. a bone in your leg ( or head ) a (feigned) reason for idleness. informal close to ( or near ) the bone 1 (of a remark) penetrating and accurate to the point of causing hurt or discomfort. 2 (of a joke or story) likely to cause offence because near the limit of decency....

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Food and Fitness: A Dictionary of Diet and Exercise (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink, Science and technology
Length:
225 words
Illustration(s):
1

... Hard tissue consisting of a calcified matrix (mainly calcium phosphate) and fibres of protein. About 200 bones make up the human skeleton. It is living tissue with its own blood supply. Bones have a number of functions: they support and protect soft tissues; they act as levers for muscle movement; and the central cavities of long bones store minerals and produce blood cells. The long bones and some flat bones contain a central cavity filled with a very active tissue called bone marrow. In adults, the marrow in certain bones (e.g. those of the sternum, ribs,...

Bone

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Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...As dry as a bone See under as . Bag of bones See under bag . Bare bones, The See under bare . Barebones Parliament, The See under bare . Bred in the bone See under bred . Crazy bone See under crazy . Devil’s bones See under devil . Feel in one’s bones, To See under feel . Funny bone See under funny . Have a bone in one’s leg, To An excuse given to children for not moving from one’s seat. Similarly ‘to have a bone in one’s arm’ is to be excused from using it for the present. Have a bone in one’s throat, To To be unable to talk; to be unable to...

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A Dictionary of Forensic Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Science and technology, Law
Length:
50 words

... Along with teeth, the components of the body that persist the longest post mortem. Bone is the primary tool of forensic anthropologists and can be used for identification, determination of sex, estimation of age at death, and estimation of stature. The study of bones generally is called...

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A Dictionary of Nursing (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
120 words
Illustration(s):
1

...bone [bohn] n. the hard extremely dense connective tissue that forms the skeleton of the body. It is composed of a matrix of collagen fibres impregnated with bone salts, chiefly calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite), in which bone cells (osteocytes) are embedded. compact (or cortical ) b. the outer shell of bones, consisting of a hard virtually solid mass made up of bony tissue arranged in concentric layers ( Haversian systems ). spongy (or cancellous ) b. bone found beneath the outer shell; it consists of a meshwork of bony...

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A Dictionary of Geology and Earth Sciences (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

... The skeletal tissue of vertebrates . Bone is composed of about 70% inorganic calcium salts, mostly hydroxyapatite but carbonate, citrate, and fluoride amines are also present. The organic component is mostly made up of the structural protein collagen...

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A Dictionary of Zoology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
45 words

... The skeletal tissue of vertebrates . Bone is composed of about 70% inorganic calcium salts, mostly hydroxyapatite but also carbonate, citrate, and fluoride amines are present. The organic component is mostly made up of the structural protein collagen . See also ossification...

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The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
2,067 words

...from the ear drum to the inner ear. There are over 200 bones in the adult skeleton. They can be divided into two principal types: the long bones such as the femur, tibia, and humerus, which develop principally from within a cartilaginous framework, and the flat bones such as the skull , bones of the pelvis , and scapula, which develop within membranes of fibrous tissue. Bone development and growth X-rays can detect primary centres of bone formation ( ossification ) in the mid shaft of long bones from the end of the second month of intrauterine life....

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The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...Bones’ ( see pressure cooking ), and repeated by Davidson (1988 a ), show that bones cooked under pressure for sufficiently long will disintegrate, yielding both marrowfat and a pulp which can be used for thickening sauces and kindred purposes. In this way bones can be eaten. They are rich in calcium. Meat that is hanging or maturing will do it on the bone better than off, and some say meat cooked on the bone has more flavour, though this may be merely the impression gained from the enriched gravy. If you are eating ortolans , however, you eat the bones as...

Bone

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The Grove Encyclopedia of Materials and Techniques in Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,488 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Pacific, bone usage is limited to a few neck ornaments of whalebone and bird-leg bones from Hawaii, Tonga and Fiji, whalebone breast plates from Tonga and Fiji and whalebone meri and flutes from human femurs made by the New Zealand Maoris. The peoples of Papua New Guinea make daggers, arrowheads and nose and hair ornaments from cassowary and pig bones. Australian Aborigines use a magically charged ‘pointing bone’ to curse enemies. In Sub-Saharan Africa the use of bone has been similarly limited. It is occasionally found in body ornaments; long bones are used...

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The Oxford Companion to Ships and the Sea (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
125 words

... . 1 The white feather of water under the bow of a ship when it is under way. A ship moving fast through the water and throwing up an appreciable feather is said to have a bone in its mouth, in its teeth. 2 As a verb, it is a naval term meaning to scrounge or pilfer. It derives from a boatswain named Bone who served in the flagship of Admiral Cornwallis during the French Revolutionary War ( 1793–1801 ), and who was adept at acquiring ship's stores from other ships to make good his deficits or build up a surplus. When the ship was decommissioned...

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Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
134 words

... the hard, dense connective tissue that constitutes the skeleton of many animals. It consists of an organic matrix impregnated with bone mineral salts. The matrix is made up of 90–95% type I collagen, a small amount of proteoglycan, and a 49‐residue protein containing three γ ‐carboxyglutamate residues, the formation of which is vitamin K‐dependent. This protein binds strongly to the hydroxyapatite crystals of the bone mineral. The inorganic part of the bone consists largely of basic calcium phosphate, which is organized into small crystals of...

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
67 words

... Connective tissue that forms the skeleton of the body, protects its internal organs, serves as a lever during locomotion and when lifting objects, and stores calcium and phosphorus. Bone is composed of a strong, compact layer of collagen (tough protein) and calcium phosphate and a lighter, porous inner spongy layer containing marrow , in which erythrocytes (red blood cells) and some leucocytes (white blood cells) are...

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A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

... Bones consist of an organic matrix composed of collagen and other proteins and crystalline mineral, mainly hydroxyapatite (calcium phosphate and calcium hydroxide), together with magnesium phosphate, fluorides, and sulphates. see also bone, cortical ; bone, trabecular ; bone marrow ; calcium...

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A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... The skeletal tissue of vertebrates, which has a greater potential for fossilization than cartilage, but is rarely found as intact skeletons. Bone consists of cells arranged regularly in a matrix mainly of collagen, heavily impregnated with calcium phosphate, which accounts for more than half the total weight. There are two main types: ( a ) endochondral bone, which forms the vertebrae and inner skull, develops from cartilaginous rudiments in the embryo; and ( b ) dermal bone, which develops directly in tissues beneath the skin without a cartilaginous...

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