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black-letter law

Subject: Law

The known and accepted principles of law set down and established, either in legislation or case law, and ascertainable from printed sources. The established, uncontested body of law in a ...

black-letter law

black-letter law   Reference library

Australian Law Dictionary (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Law
Length:
111 words

...black-letter law The known and accepted principles of law set down and established, either in legislation or case law, and ascertainable from printed sources. The established, uncontested body of law in a particular subject area; the principles that a lawyer versed in that area of law would be able to state confidently. Black-letter law is the mainstay of the practitioner and the profession. The term also describes a traditional, orthodox, formal, positivist, technical approach to the law that resists evaluation, outside criticism or interdisciplinary...

black-letter law

black-letter law  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
The known and accepted principles of law set down and established, either in legislation or case law, and ascertainable from printed sources. The established, uncontested body of law in a ...
2 Thessalonians

2 Thessalonians   Reference library

Philip F. Esler and Philip F. Esler

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
8,175 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...shaken in mind or alarmed, either by a prophetic utterance (‘a spirit’) or a word or letter ‘as though from us’, saying that ‘the day of the Lord is already here’. This is one of the most important verses in the letter. ‘A letter as though from us’ can mean either a forgery or a letter which he did write that is now being misinterpreted. If Paul had actually written 2 Thessalonians, he would have signally failed to address either alternative. For he neither denounces the letter as a forgery nor seeks directly to correct the misinterpretation. The statement is...

Galatians

Galatians   Reference library

G. N. Stanton and G. N. Stanton

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
16,432 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

.... Right up until v. 21 b Paul speaks negatively about the law—32 times in all; in every case he has the law of Moses in mind. It is no exaggeration to claim that from 2:16 to v. 21 a Paul's view of the law is ‘consistently malignant’ ( Martyn 1997 : 37 ). In v. 21 b , however, Paul's tone changes dramatically: nomos (law) is used positively for the first time in this letter. In this verse Paul speaks with heavy irony: you Galatians who desire ‘to be subject to the law’, listen to what the law really says, for it does have positive things to say. This...

Romans

Romans   Reference library

Craig C. Hill and Craig C. Hill

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
30,053 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...people ( v. 33 ). Paul calls the law, literally, an ‘old/aged letter’ ( palaiotēti grammatos ), a title conveying (in line with the treatment of the old covenant in Jer 31 ) both decrepitude and externality. But that's not all: the metaphor of slavery is picked up from the previous chapter and applied, not to sin, but to the law itself ( see Gal 4:22–31 ). vv. 4–6 ratchet up by several notches Paul's already negative treatment of the law. The law is no longer just an inadequate solution to the problem of sin; the law itself is the problem. Has not Paul...

2 Corinthians

2 Corinthians   Reference library

Margaret MacDonald and Margaret MacDonald

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
21,614 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...various contrasting notions such as ‘letter of law/Spirit,’ ‘death/life’, ‘old covenant/new covenant’, Paul compares the old relationship between God and his people with the new relationship established by God through Christ (on covenant, see ABD i. 1197–202). The issue of the letters of recommendation in 3:1–6 allows him to introduce the issue of the letter of the Jewish law. Beginning in 3:6 , and continuing to v. 11 , the law—the centre of the old covenant—is depicted in categorically negative terms. The letter kills and ministry based on letters...

King Lear

King Lear   Reference library

Stanley Wells and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,801 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...disinherited Cordelia, but France, perceiving her true value, accepts her. Left alone, Regan and Gonoril reveal jealousy of Cordelia and impatience with their father’s weaknesses. Sc. 2 (1.2) Edmund, declaring allegiance to the law of nature, reveals his determination to usurp his legitimate brother’s inheritance. Producing a letter purportedly written by Edgar, he tricks Gloucester into believing that Edgar seeks to join with Edmund in seizing their father’s estates. Edmund offers to demonstrate the truth of his allegation if Gloucester will conceal himself...

Christian-Muslim Democracy

Christian-Muslim Democracy   Reference library

Dimasangcay A. Pundato

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
2,544 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... It is under the regime of President Corazon Aquino [1986–1992] that the Muslim Filipinos were able to fully appreciate the realization of one of their aspirations as a people: that of the total implementation of the Code of Muslim Personal Laws of the Philippines, when President Aquino appointed more shari‘a [Islamic law] judges and directed the conduct of shari‘a training seminars and the administration of the Shari‘a Bar Examinations this year. Even the participation of our country in international Qur'an reading competitions has been expanded...

1 Thessalonians

1 Thessalonians   Reference library

Philip F. Esler and Philip F. Esler

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
15,718 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...to the Thessalonians , Black's New Testament Commentaries (London: Adam & Charles Black). Betz, H. D. (1978), ‘De fraterno amore ( Moralia 478A–492D)’, in H. D. Betz (ed.) (1978), Plutarch's Ethical Writings and Early Christian Literature (Leiden: E. J. Brill), 231–63. Boers, H. (1976), ‘The Form Critical Study of Paul's Letters. 1 Thessalonians as a Case Study’, NTS 22: 140–58. Brown, R. (1988), Group Processes: Dynamics Within and Between Groups (Oxford: Basil Blackwell). Chapa, J. (1994), ‘Is First Thessalonians a Letter of Consolation?’, NTS 40:...

Colossians

Colossians   Reference library

Jerome Murphy-O'Connor, OP and Jerome Murphy-O'Connor, OP

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
10,129 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in his own hand to authenticate the letter ( 4:18; cf. 2 Thess 3:17; Gal 6:11; Philem 19; 1 Cor 16:21; Richards 1991 : 173–7 ). References Abbott, T. K. (1897), A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Epistles to the Ephesians and to the Colossians , ICC (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark). Aletti, J.-N. (1993), Saint Paul: Épître aux Colossiens , Ebib ns 20 (Paris: Gabalda). Anderson, C. P. (1992), ‘Laodiceans, Epistle to’, ABD iv. 231–3. Balch, D. (1992), ‘Household Codes’, ABD iii. 318–20. Bandstra, A. J. (1964), Law and the Elements (Kampen: Kok)....

The Merchant of Venice

The Merchant of Venice   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,171 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...which Bassanio agrees. Bassanio is subsequently met by Graziano, whom he permits to accompany him to Belmont on condition that he behave soberly. 2.3 Shylock’s daughter Jessica bids farewell to Lancelot, giving him a letter to Bassanio’s friend Lorenzo, with whom she plans to elope. 2.4 Lorenzo, among his revelling friends, receives Jessica’s letter, which directs him to take her from her father’s house, disguised as a page, that night. 2.5 Shylock, invited out to dine with Antonio and associates, bids farewell first to Lancelot and then, despite misgivings, to...

1 Corinthians

1 Corinthians   Reference library

John Barclay and John Barclay

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
31,224 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...on a vague and uncharacteristic appeal to ‘the law’ ( v. 34 ) and appears to assume that all the women will have husbands to ask ‘at home’ ( v. 35 ), despite Paul's acceptance that the single and celibate option is prudent for both women and men ( ch. 7 ). Such facts prompt one of two conclusions. Either Paul is truly inconsistent here, reacting against a threat of ‘unruly’ women by forbidding their verbal participation, despite what he had earlier allowed. Or this passage is an interpolation into the letter by a later editor, one who took the opportunity of...

13 The Manuscript after the Coming of Print

13 The Manuscript after the Coming of Print   Reference library

Harold Love

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,956 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...italic hand or a flawlessly rounded 19 th -century *copperplate achieves a suppression of individuality far greater than that of the freewheeling typography of *L’Estrange ’s late 17 th -century Observator s with their idiosyncratic intermingling of capitals, italic, and *black letter and free use of brackets and of capitalization for emphasis. Yet Ong’s general point is a fair one. There is something remote and impersonal about a well-constructed typographic page that is the price it exacts for permitting us to read it at high speed. Few reading...

Family and Society

Family and Society   Quick reference

Ralph Houlbrooke

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,144 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...1970s. The most useful studies of different aspects of family life from various vantage points (legal, ideological, sociological, demographic, and economic) are also recent ones, though a few much older works may be mentioned. F. W. Maitland's chapters on family law in The History of English Law ( 1895 , 1968 ) are still indispensable reading. Among the many books devoted to marriage and divorce are G. E. Howard , A History of Matrimonial Institutions ( 1904 ), R. H. Helmholz , Marriage Litigation in Medieval England ( 1974 ), Martin Ingram , ...

The Reformation to 1700

The Reformation to 1700   Reference library

David Wright

The Oxford Illustrated History of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
7,449 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
14

...for the first time), then between books and between chapters. More significant for easy legibility was the switch from heavy black letter type to roman (not far different from what you are reading on this page). This had been tried in the fifteenth century for Latin Bibles (and used for Italian ones from the earliest), but it became established only after Erasmus's pioneering New Testament of 1516. A printed black-letter Bible in Latin, produced in Basel in 1509. A space has been left for an illumination to be done, and the printed text resembles...

37 The History of the Book in Sub-Saharan Africa

37 The History of the Book in Sub-Saharan Africa   Reference library

Andrew Vlies

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,292 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

... *Ravan , *Ad Donker , *Skotaville , and *Taurus . Important journals of the period include The African Drum (later Drum )—the primary venue for 1950s black writers including Lewis Nkosi, Es’kia Mphahlele, and Can Themba—as well as English-language literary organs such as Contrast , New Coin , Ophir , Purple Renoster , and Classic , some of which heralded the emergence of a generation of Black Consciousness poets. As elsewhere in Sub-Saharan Africa, missionary activity played an important role in the development of printing cultures. T. J. van der...

Jewish Family Names

Jewish Family Names   Reference library

Alexander Beider

Dictionary of American Family Names (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Names studies
Length:
7,422 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...century following the general law that concerned all Jews who lived in the Habsburg Empire. Similar to all the other provinces, these names were mainly based on German vocabulary. However, beginning in the middle of the 19th century, as a result of the Hungarian nationalist movement, some local Jews replaced their names with names based on Hungarian vocabulary. Among these “Magyarized” names we find kovacs ‘smith’, meszaros ‘butcher’, polgar ‘craftsman’, szabo ‘tailor’, varga ‘shoemaker’, nemes ‘noble’, fekete ‘black’, nagy ‘big’, Keleti ...

26 The History of the Book in the Nordic Countries

26 The History of the Book in the Nordic Countries   Reference library

Charlotte Appel and Karen Skovgaard-Petersen

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,240 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...of *Ghemen settled briefly in Copenhagen, but otherwise most early 16 th -century printers were itinerant Germans. Throughout the early modern period, many craftsmen and tradesmen emigrated from or were trained in Germany. German trends and techniques were followed closely: *black letter was used for vernacular texts, whereas *gotico-antiqua *roman type became the standard for books in Latin; likewise, bookbindings displayed German influence in the use of decorative *roll tool s, many of them imported. After the Lutheran Reformation, the Swedish and...

Introduction to the Pentateuch

Introduction to the Pentateuch   Reference library

G. I. Davies

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
32,329 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...In response to the appearance of Graf's book Kuenen now argued that the Book of Origins could not be divided up in this way, because the narratives were intimately related to the laws; so, if (as Graf had so powerfully demonstrated) the laws were late in origin, the narratives associated with them in the ‘earlier’ part of the Book of Origins must be late too. Graf's letter to Kuenen accepting the validity of this point survives—it is dated 12 Nov. 1866—and subsequently Graf put this change of mind into print in an article in which he responded to various...

Essay with Commentary on Post-Biblical Jewish Literature

Essay with Commentary on Post-Biblical Jewish Literature   Reference library

Philip S. Alexander

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
48,106 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...fragmentary and enigmatic, and, crucially, its opening is missing. However, it has been plausibly suggested that it is the remnants of a letter which was sent by the Teacher of Righteousness, the founder of the Dead Sea sect, to the high priest in Jerusalem, urging him to accept the Essene interpretation of certain moot points of law, rather than the interpretation of the Pharisees ( anth b .7). The Halakic Letter clearly shows that what was at stake in these inter-sectarian disputes was not simply the truth but political power. Whichever party or sect...

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