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birth control

Subject: Religion

Any method that is used to reduce births, including celibacy, delayed marriage, contraception, and sterilization. See also family planning.

birth control

birth control   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
6 words

... control Alternative term for ...

birth control

birth control n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Nursing (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
16 words

... control n. the use of contraception or sterilization (male or female) to prevent unwanted...

birth control

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Concise Medical Dictionary (10 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
17 words

... control the use of contraception or sterilization (male or female) to prevent unwanted...

birth control

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A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

... control Any method that is used to reduce births, including celibacy, delayed marriage, contraception, and sterilization. See also family planning...

Birth Control

Birth Control   Reference library

Cynthia J. Davis

The Oxford Companion to Women's Writing in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
997 words

...open and onto the public agenda. Sanger should be given ample credit for her pioneering work in birth control, work that is continued today by the organization she founded, the Birth Control Federation of America, eventually renamed Planned Parenthood. However, her project was not without its limitations—in part due to both her own and many of her followers' belief that birth control was not only an individual issue of choice, but also a means of population control. For instance, Sanger's efforts were targeted primarily at the working class, and while truly...

BIRTH CONTROL

BIRTH CONTROL   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
641 words

...to use birth control may include unduly frequent birth, temporary physical weakness, excessive fatigue, constant miscarriage, and serious concern for the birth of genetically defective children. Some halakhic authorities permit the use of birth control to delay the start of a family while young married couples complete their education, but in principle, the use of birth control for economic reasons is forbidden under Jewish law. The Conservative rabbinate, in its Rabbinic Letter on Intimate Relations, affirms the permissibility of using birth control but also...

birth control

birth control   Reference library

Dianne Dodd

The Oxford Companion to Canadian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
442 words

...Thus birth control was not advocated by reformers until 1924 , when a brave group of Vancouver socialist feminists established the Canadian Birth Control League. During the Depression, the movement became more organized, but its earlier feminism began to coexist uneasily with a socially conservative eugenicism advocated by many middle-class reformers. Mary Hawkins , who was inspired by the American birth control advocate and feminist Margaret Sanger , founded a clinic in Hamilton, Ontario, in 1932 . She wanted to make safe, medically supervised birth...

Birth Control

Birth Control   Reference library

Sanjam AHLUWALIA

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History
Length:
2,486 words

...Bombay (now Mumbai) in the 1920s and 1930s were Birth Control News (United States), Birth Control Review (United States), Madras Birth Control Bulletin (India), and Marriage Hygiene (India). Again, this is not a comprehensive list, but one that points to the rich international variety of publication on the subject. Advocates solicited articles for these journals internationally, and many of these journals carried specific information on birth control work and clinics around the world. Birth control advocates also published a large number of...

birth control

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A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...birth control A euphemism for advocacy and use of contraception, occasionally perceived as pejorative because the word “control” in this context may convey the notion of coercion by an authoritarian government or other external authority. However, the birth control movement rarely had government support in its early days. It evolved from beginnings in the mid-19th century and gathered momentum with the teachings of Margaret Sanger , Marie Stopes , and others, aided by loosening of restrictions on access to and sale of contraceptives coinciding with wider...

Birth-Control

Birth-Control   Quick reference

A Concise Companion to the Jewish Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
181 words

...-Control The prevention of the birth of unwanted children either by total abstinence from sexual relations or by engaging in them in a way that frustrates conception. The objection to artificial contraception is on the grounds of what the Talmud terms ‘wasting seed’, that is the emission of semen which, if deposited in the womb, could have resulted in the birth of a child. This does not mean that sexual relations are forbidden unless they can lead to a birth. There is no objection whatsoever to sex where conception is impossible, for instance, where the wife...

Birth Control

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Zaynab El Bernoussi and Baudouin Dupret

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World: Digital Collection

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
3,698 words

... This article will review some of the approaches in history to birth control in the Islamic tradition. After that, it will move on to a discussion of birth control in bioethics to understand the ethical implications of anti-fertilization methods. The article finally discusses modern issues regarding birth control in Muslim societies. Birth Control and the Pre-Modern Islamic Normative Tradition ...

birth control

birth control   Reference library

Jeremy Boulton

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
579 words

...Birth control before 1870 was restricted to higher social classes and some groups of industrial workers, such as those in the textile industry. All this changed after 1870 when, within a few generations, Britain, in common with most other European countries, underwent the so-called fertility transition. Between 1880 and 1930 the fertility of women of child-bearing age declined by over 60 per cent and the average size of British families fell by almost two-thirds. This declining birth rate was due largely to the adoption of birth control within...

Birth Control

Birth Control   Reference library

James W. Reed, Robert Y. Eng, Sanjam Ahluwalia, R. Murray Thomas, and Caryn E. Neumann

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
5,739 words
Illustration(s):
2

...) began actively to promote birth control in the 1910s. A founder of the American birth control movement and Planned Parenthood (originally called the American Birth Control League), Sanger believed that common contraceptive methods such as withdrawal and condoms were undesirable practices because women were dependent on men to use them. Searching for a woman-centered form of birth control, Sanger settled on the diaphragm, which needed to be fitted by a medical professional. In 1916 , Sanger opened the first birth control clinic in the United States in...

Birth Control

Birth Control   Reference library

Donald T. Critchlow

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,359 words

...birth control advocacy of Margaret Sanger and other feminists; a Progressive Era eugenics campaign; and a post–World War II population-control movement. Sanger , a nurse active in New York ’s socialist and radical labor movements, became increasingly concerned about the plight of working-class mothers who bore the burden of uncontrolled fecundity. Her 1914 pamphlet “Family Limitation” forced her to flee to Europe to avoid prosecution under the Comstock Law. Upon her return she launched the Birth Control Review ( 1917 ), organized the American Birth...

birth control

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Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...the result of a selection process aimed to diminish religious and moral protests towards birth control technologies. Finally, the birth control pill exemplifies how a technology can have manifold and contradictory impacts on society. Technologies can be considered as the great liberators as well as oppressors of our time. The history of the birth control pill clearly illustrates these two contrasting faces of technology. On the one hand, the history of the birth control pill is a story about the empowerment of women: Oral contraceptives for women have...

birth control

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A Dictionary of Biology (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
259 words

...birth control ( contraception ) The intentional avoidance of pregnancy by methods that do not normally hinder sexual activity. The methods used can be ‘natural’ or ‘artificial’. Natural methods, often used because of religious or moral objections to artificial methods, include the rhythm method , in which sexual intercourse is avoided during times when ovulation occurs; and coitus interruptus , an unreliable method in which the penis is withdrawn from the vagina before ejaculation. The rhythm method requires a monitoring of the woman’s menstrual cycle and...

Birth Control

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Oxford Essential Quotations (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
190 words

... Control Birth Control see also Pregnancy A fast word about oral contraception. I asked a girl to go to bed with me and she said ‘no’. Woody Allen 1935 –   American film director , writer , and actor at a nightclub in Washington, April 1965; Woody Allen Volume Two (Colpix CP 488) side 4, band 6 oral contraception oral contraception she said ‘ no ’ It is now quite lawful for a Catholic woman to avoid pregnancy by a resort to mathematics, though she is still forbidden to resort to physics and chemistry. H. L. Mencken 1880 – 1956 American ...

birth control

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A Dictionary of British History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
345 words

...saw the first open discussion of birth control techniques. More public debate followed the creation of the so‐called Malthusian League ( 1877–1927 ), which distributed some 3 million pamphlets advocating birth control. Before the third quarter of the 19th cent., however, there is little statistical evidence that English couples were practising much family limitation. Birth control before 1870 was restricted to higher social classes and some groups of industrial workers. All this changed after 1870 when, within a few generations, Britain underwent the...

Birth Control/Contraception

Birth Control/Contraception   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
152 words

...Birth Control/Contraception In contrast to Christian and Jewish traditions, from earliest times family planning and contraception found acceptance in Islamic tradition. The Quran contains no clear or explicit text regarding birth control. However, the traditions (hadith) of Muhammad do. Though some traditions forbid birth control, the majority permit it. The vast majority of Sunni and Shii jurists believed that birth control through use of coitus interruptus (azl) was permissible, although a minority disagreed. However, because this procedure deprived a...

Birth Control Movement

Birth Control Movement   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,974 words

... Control Movement Despite how common it was for many of them to have more children than they desired, women of color were suspicious of the early birth control movement. This may be attributed, in part, to its association with the eugenics movement. Francis Galton , a British scientist and distant relative of Charles Darwin , coined the word “eugenics” and founded the Eugenics Society in 1907 . Galton’s ideas fueled fear of “race suicide” in the white community and followers advocated birth control as a way to prevent American-born whites from being...

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