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bilingual

1 Able to speak two languages. Compare ambilingual (1). n. 2 A bilingual person. bilingualism n. [From Latin bis twice + lingua a tongue + -alis of or ...

Bilingualism

Bilingualism   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...puberty). In the social context of languages like English, especially in Australia, England and the US, the traditional tendency has been to consider the possession and use of one language the norm. Bilingualism, however, is at least as common as monolingualism; about half the world’s population (some 2.5 billion people) is bilingual, and kinds of bilingualism are probably present in every country in the world. See canadian languages ; code-mixing and code-switching ; highland english ; irish english ; maori english ; welsh english . ...

bilingualism

bilingualism   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
554 words

...Plowman arose because English had gained prominence. Bilingual competence varied. While accurate translations and grammars point to proficiency, some evidence manifests only rudimentary bilingualism . Walter of Bibbesworth composed his Tretiz de Langage c .1250 for English aristocratic women teaching their children elementary French: its limited scope shows that it was not written for adept bilinguals. Early German *dialogue manuals likewise demanded minimal competence. Popular academic ‘ bilingualism ’ may be represented by the ‘Interpretation of Hebrew...

Bilingualism

Bilingualism   Reference library

Patricia Hunt

The Oxford Companion to Women's Writing in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
925 words

... . The use of two languages among women writers and critics in the United States occurs in tandem with biculturalism. Some bilingual-bicultural writers are children of immigrants whose primary language was not English ( Maxine Hong Kingston and Monica Sone ), while others are themselves immigrants ( Anzia Yezierska , Bharati Mukherjee , Kim Chi-won, Jessica Hagedorn ). Bilingualism also figures in the writings of women whose experience is not that of the immigrant, but of the colonized within this country, such as Native Americans ( Louise ...

bilingualism

bilingualism   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
518 words

...demotic and Greek. So the weight of administrative documents in Greek may hide greater Egyptian participation. Individual bilingualism, esp. among prominent and ambitious Egyptian officials, must have been widespread. The Roman empire was bilingual at the official, and multilingual at the individual and non‐official, level. With the increasing Hellenization of Rome itself ( see hellenism ), educated Romans were expected to be bilingual in Latin and Greek, esp. from the 1st cent. bc , at least for cultural purposes. Quintilian advised that children start...

bilingualism

bilingualism   Reference library

Rosalind Thomas

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,249 words

... Widespread bilingualism at some level was characteristic of the ancient world, whether we look for (a) bilingual communities , in which two languages are in use (e.g. official and popular languages, written and non-written, formal and informal), or (b) bilingual individuals who know two languages at some level. Perfect capacity in two languages, a modern ideal, was probably both rare and unnecessary, and, despite Herodotus 8. 144 on Greek ( see greek language ), the close modern identity of language and nation seems to have been relatively...

bilingualism

bilingualism   Reference library

Rosalind Thomas

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,121 words

... Widespread bilingualism at some level was characteristic of the ancient world, whether we look for (a) bilingual communities , in which two languages are in use (e.g. official and popular languages, written and non-written, formal and informal), or (b) bilingual individuals who know two languages at some level. Perfect capacity in two languages, a modern ideal, was probably both rare and unnecessary, and, despite Hdt. 8. 144 on Greek ( see greek language ), the close modern identity of language and nation seems to have been relatively unimportant....

bilingualism

bilingualism   Reference library

Raymond Hudon

The Oxford Companion to Canadian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
444 words

... . In response to the perception that French-speaking Canadians were being treated as a underprivileged ethnic minority, the federal government, in July 1963 , appointed the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism to recommend the establishment of ‘an equal partnership between the two founding races’ in Canada, not overlooking the contributions of other ethnic groups to the country's cultural enrichment. In a view radically different from Lord Durham 's proposal that the French would be assimilated by an influx of English settlers, the...

bilingualism

bilingualism   Reference library

Paul A. Kolers

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,442 words

...Albert, M. L. and Obler, L. K. (1978). The Bilingual Brain . Haugen, E. (1974). ‘Bilingualism, language contact, and immigrant languages in the United States: a research report, 1956–1970’. In Sebok, T. A. (ed.), Current Trends in Linguistics , vol. x. Kolers, P. A. (1978). ‘On the representations of experience’. In Gerver, D. , and Sinaiko, W. (eds.), Language Interpretation and Communication . Weinreich, U. (1953). Languages in Contact: Findings and Problems . Recent research in bilingualism makes use of brain imaging techniques to...

bilingualism

bilingualism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Classical studies
Length:
921 words

... The knowledge of two languages by an individual, or the use of two languages in one community. In the former case, what is often denoted by the term in the ancient world is knowledge by an individual of both Latin and Greek. The Greek sense of the superiority of their own culture, including their language, apparently precluded them from showing much interest in other languages. Herodotus tells us that he needed an interpreter to translate an Egyptian inscription for him. The sources that describe the wide travels of famous Greek thinkers make no...

bilingualism

bilingualism   Reference library

Oliver Nicholson

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...the Roman and Persian courts . Oliver Nicholson J. N. Adams , Bilingualism and the Latin Language (2003). J. N. Adams , M. Janse , and S. Swain , Bilingualism in Ancient Society: Language Contact and the Written Word (2002). V. Bubeník , Hellenistic and Roman Greece as a Sociolinguistic Area (1989). E. Dickey , ‘Ancient Bilingualism’, JRS 93 (2003), 295–302. Van Dam , Roman Revolution of Constantine , ch. 7. S. J. Clackson and A. Papaconstantinou , ‘Coptic or Greek? Bilingualism in the Papyri’, in A. Papaconstantinou , ed., The Multilingual...

coordinate bilingualism

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
27 words

...bilingualism Bilingualism in which mastery of one language is hypothetically separate in the bilingual’s mind from mastery of the other. Distinguished in principle from compound bilingualism...

compound bilingualism

compound bilingualism   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
29 words

...bilingualism Bilingualism in which the speaker’s knowledge of the structure of one language is hypothetically integrated with that of the other. Distinguished in principle from coordinate bilingualism...

sequential bilingualism

sequential bilingualism   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
22 words

...bilingualism That of any individual who has acquired one language first and another later. Seen as distinct from simultaneous bilingualism...

simultaneous bilingualism

simultaneous bilingualism   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
24 words

...bilingualism That of any individual who has acquired two languages as native at the same time. Seen as distinct from sequential bilingualism...

‘additive bilingualism’

‘additive bilingualism’   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
59 words

...bilingualismBilingualism in which a second language has been acquired without detriment to the first. Used e.g. of the acquisition of French by English speakers in Canada: that of German and French by speakers of Luxembourgish or of standard German by speakers of Swiss German also seems to fit the definition. Contrasted with subtractive bilingualism...

‘subtractive bilingualism’

‘subtractive bilingualism’   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
45 words

...bilingualism’ The acquisition of a second language at the expense, or ultimately at the expense, of the first, e.g. that of English by many immigrant communities in North America or Britain. Contrasted, though the facts are hardly so clear-cut, with additive bilingualism...

Bilingualism and Multilingualism

Bilingualism and Multilingualism   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
7,869 words

...some settings of stable bilingualism, where more conservative and more innovative language varieties function as formal and informal varieties, respectively, e.g. Classical Arabic vs. Colloquial Arabic. Many sociolinguists believe that, in the absence of diglossia, bilingualism will result in language shift. An important distinction which incorporates the notion of majority and minority languages is that between additive and subtractive bilingualism—also referred to as elite vs. folk bilingualism. In additive bilingualism, as in the case of...

Bilingualism and Multilingualism

Bilingualism and Multilingualism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,498 words
Illustration(s):
1

... and Multilingualism In the ancient world in general bilingualism and multilingualism were more common than monolingualism. Bilingualism in Greece. In Greece of the Classical period citizen elites may have been monolingual as a result of their feeling of cultural superiority. The Athenians in Herodotus 8.144 boast of the “kinship of all Greeks in blood and speech.” Plato shows no interest in foreign languages in his etymological discussions in the Cratylus , simply dismissing all non-Greek languages as barbarian, and the historian Herodotus seems to...

Bilingualism and Biliteracy

Bilingualism and Biliteracy   Reference library

Penelope Collins and Tien Thuy Ho

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Educational Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
8,781 words

...What Instructional Approaches Do Teachers Use in Bilingual Education? The different models of bilingual education reflect different goals about bilingualism and the balance of the languages of instruction. Despite the dosage of each language, students learn best when teachers use high-quality instructional practices. We explore how teachers can best promote literacy and academic proficiency for bilingual students. Should the Two Languages Be Kept Separate in Bilingual Classrooms? Traditionally, bilingual pedagogy education has incorporated a strict...

Bilingualism And Biculturalism

Bilingualism And Biculturalism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,172 words

...over bilingual education intensified in 1998 . In California, voters endorsed a proposition to end the instruction of immigrant children in their native languages. In Chicago and Denver, Colorado, school boards voted to limit bilingual classes to three years. The Arizona Legislature voted to limit bilingual education to four years. As the number of Latinas and Latinos working in the corporate sector has grown over the past decade, companies have begun to tailor special programs to their needs—from offering free English classes to publishing bilingual company...

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