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Beaver

A small sidewheel steamship built for the Hudson's Bay Company at London in 1835, Beaver was intended as a technological advantage to dominate the maritime fur trade on the northwest ... ...

Procurement

Procurement   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...Jeep—will secure a place in the civilian market sufficient to reduce its costs of production. [See also Industry and War .] Erna Risch , Quartermaster Support of the Army: A History of the Corps 1775–1939 , 1962. Fred Crismon , U.S. Military Wheeled Vehicles , 1983. Daniel R. Beaver Procurement: Munitions and Chemical Industry The chemical industry has been strategically important to the U.S. military since World War I. As late as the Spanish‐American War in 1898 , the only military explosive was black powder, the ancient Chinese mixture of charcoal,...

Beaver

Beaver   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
940 words

...Felt from beaver pelts was also frequently used in the making of men's hats. The importance of men's hats to male fashion in Europe guaranteed an ongoing demand for beaver pelts from the North American market. The beaver pelt also became critical as a unit of measurement in the fur trade. The absence of a traditional monetary economy among the aboriginal traders prompted the creation of an alternative system of accounting. The system tracked the number of “made beaver,” or beaver prepared for export, as the primary currency. Made beaver could then be...

beaver

beaver   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...which they construct their lodge. A beaver’s diet is strictly vegetarian; they feed throughout the year on bark, twigs, tree buds, grass, berries, lily roots, and other aquatic plants. Although the beaver’s industrious habits, wholesome diet, and generally meritorious lifestyle have endeared it to many human beings, the fact remains that beavers are also prized for their flesh, and are eaten. According to Ashbrook and Sater ( 1945 ) ‘beaver meat is dark in colour, fine in texture and tender’. They go on to say that: A beaver skinned and dressed will weigh a...

beaver

beaver   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Canadian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
301 words

... 1700 to include many other furs. The beaver's need for elaborate dams and a lodge (its ‘heavy fixed capital’ in the words of the economist Harold Adams Innis ) made it an easy prey for trappers, especially after iron and steel tools came into use. The beaver's existence was also threatened by 19th- and 20th-century farmers, who felled trees and drained land. The conservationist Grey Owl campaigned tirelessly for the beaver in speeches and books such as The Adventures of Sajo and Her Beaver People ( 1935 ). The beaver appears as a symbol of Canada on a...

beaver

beaver   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
61 words

... Large rodent with brown to black fur, webbed hind feet, and a broad tail; it lives in streams and lakes of Europe, North America and Asia. Beavers build ‘lodges’ of trees and branches above water level and dam streams and rivers with stones, sticks and mud. Length: to 1.2m (4ft); weight: up to 32kg (70lb). Family Castoridae; species Castor fiber...

Beaver

Beaver   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Canadian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
176 words

... . A small sidewheel steamship built for the Hudson's Bay Company at London in 1835 , Beaver was intended as a technological advantage to dominate the maritime fur trade on the northwest coast of America by reaching areas not yet touched by competing Yankee traders in sailing ships. Sent, under sail in 1836 , to the hbc 's Columbia Department headquarters at Fort Vancouver (now in the state of Washington), where her engines were placed into service, Beaver became the first steamer on the Pacific coast. In a 53-year career, Beaver traded between...

Beaver

Beaver   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...in the First World War and as minister of aircraft production in the Second World War. Beavers Young boys, aged from six to eight years, who are members of the youngest group in the Scout Association. The group was inaugurated in 1971 in Canada, a country where beavers are well known and where they were formerly exploited for their fur. See also boy scouts . Beaver State The sobriquet of Oregon state, in the northwest of the USA, home of many beavers. Eager beaver See under eager...

beaver

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Mike Allaby

Dictionary Plus Science and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology
Length:
82 words

... One of two species of large, mainly nocturnal, highly social, semiaquatic rodents, the Eurasian ( Castor fiber ) and North American ( C. canadensis ) beavers. Beavers fell riverside trees, using the wood together with mud and stones to construct dams in small rivers creating a lake, and to build a lodge in the centre of the lake, with an entrance below the surface, where they live in colonies, protected from predators by the water. They feed on wood and other plant material. Mike...

beaver-tail

beaver-tail   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
14 words

...-tail Tile , the exposed part of which is shaped like a beaver’s...

Beaver, Tony

Beaver, Tony   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Companion to American Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Literature
Length:
27 words

...Beaver, Tony , giant hero of tall tales told by lumberjacks of the Southern mountains, was “a sort of relative” of Paul Bunyan , whose mythical exploits he equals....

Mountain Beaver

Mountain Beaver   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Mammals (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
1,275 words
Illustration(s):
3

...beavers were solitary except during the breeding and rearing season, but recent studies using radio tracking have demonstrated that this view is inadequate. Some mountain beavers spend short periods together in all seasons. Neighbors, for example, will share nests and food caches, or a wandering beaver will stay a day or two in another beaver's burrow system. Sometimes a beaver's burrow will also be occupied, in part if not in its entirety, by any of a range of other animals, such as salamanders, frogs, or deer mice. Unlike many rodents, mountain beavers...

Beaver Wars

Beaver Wars   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Canadian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
415 words

...Beaver Wars, a name that implies that the Iroquois fought their neighbours in order to conquer new territory for its furs. Since the 1860s, historians have explained the Beaver Wars as resulting from eastern Native eagerness for European goods, which led to a rapid expansion of trade between the two groups. Adoption of these ‘superior’ goods led to rapid cultural change and dependency on the traders. Needing more goods, Natives expanded their trapping, especially in beaver , the fur in greatest demand. By the 1630s the Iroquois ran short of beaver and...

Beaver, Tony

Beaver, Tony   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Literature (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Literature
Length:
107 words

..., Tony , giant hero of tall tales told by lumberjacks of the Southern mountains, was “a sort of relative” of Paul Bunyan , whose mythical exploits he equals. In the Cumberland Mountains, one of his camps was located “up Eel River”; another was “way up in the Smokies.” His most famous associate was Big Henry, whose axe, when swung, came down “boo!” Tony Beaver was the author of many ingenious inventions, including that of peanut brittle, which he created when he stopped a flood by dumping into the stream the surplus crop of peanuts and molasses. His...

Beaver, Bruce

Beaver, Bruce (1928–2004)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
1,097 words

...from Beaver's compulsive philosophising, record and rejoice in natural sights and sounds and contain some of his most attractive lyricism. Death's Directives , twenty poems in which Death variously suggests, reminds, advises or lays down directives to the poet about life, are the most relaxed of Beaver's poetry. The near genial tone and the absence of tension reflect, perhaps for the first time in the whole body of Beaver's poetry, an affirmation of life and a mental and emotional confidence. As It Was , the autobiographical prose poem which Beaver for a...

Beaver, Bruce

Beaver, Bruce (1928–2004)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Writers and their Works (3 ed.)

..., Bruce ( 1928–2004 ) Australian poet and novelist Under the Bridge ( 1961 ) Poetry Seawall and Shoreline ( 1964 ) Poetry Hot Sands ( 1964 ) Fiction The Hot Spring ( 1965 ) Fiction You Can't Come Back ( 1966 ) Fiction The Hot Men ( 1965 ) Fiction The Hot Summer ( 1966 ) Fiction Open at Random ( 1967 ) Poetry Letters to Live Poets ( 1969 ) Poetry Lauds and Plaints: Poems, 1968–72 ( 1974 ) Poetry Odes and Days ( 1975 ) Poetry Death's Directives ( 1978 ) Poetry As It Was ( 1979 ) Non-Fiction Headlands (...

Beaver, Bruce

Beaver, Bruce (1928–2004)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

Reference type:
Subject Reference

..., Bruce ( 1928–2004 ), Australian poet , born in Manly, New South Wales. He led a peripatetic early life, including four years spent in New Zealand. As a young man he had suffered from manic depression and his early collections of poetry, Under the Bridge ( 1961 ), Seawall and Shoreline ( 1964 ), and Open at Random ( 1967 ), reflect his inner turmoil. Letters to Live Poets ( 1969 ), his major work, was written at great speed at a time when he thought he would lose his mind completely; the ‘Letters’ are confessional in tone and his reflections upon...

Eager beaver

Eager beaver   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...beaver A US expression in the Second World War for an over-zealous recruit whose keenness was marked by volunteering on every possible occasion. It was subsequently applied in civilian life to any glutton for work. The beaver is noted for its industry and hard work, but not specifically for its eagerness. See also beavers . It would be futile to play that game against Republican Earl Warren, one of the foremost spokesmen of the eager-beaver...

Beaver Wars

Beaver Wars   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

... Wars ( 1640 s- 1680 s), a series of conflicts between Iroquois and Algonquin tribes living near the Great Lakes. Involvement in the fur trade destabilized Native American cultures by introducing European diseases and by imparting economic stresses on natural resources. When demand for beaver furs led to the animals' being hunted out in traditional Iroquois land, tribal groups began expanding into Algonquin territories, leading to an escalating cycle of...

Beaver Hall Group

Beaver Hall Group   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Canadian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
249 words

... Hall Group . A short-lived group of artists established in Montreal in May 1920 to further modern art in that city. Inspired by the first exhibition of the Group of Seven earlier that year, the Beaver Hall Group was established to make visible a unified message of individual expression and quality in Canadian art. Edwin Holgate was the prime mover in its formation and A. Y. Jackson its first president. The membership consisted of 19 male and female, anglophone and francophone artists, most former students of William Brymner at the Art Association...

Beaver, (Victor) Bruce

Beaver, (Victor) Bruce (1928–2004)   Reference library

Tom Shapcott

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

..., (Victor) Bruce ( 1928–2004 ) Born in Manly, New South Wales, Australia. With its arcades, malls and beaches, Manly became the setting for much of his later poetry, which consists largely of meditations and personal explorations of both social and metaphysical concerns. Like Patrick White , Beaver has a well-developed intuition for the outcasts of society, as well as for the humanizing features of life, even the life of those kicked and trampled by city living. A contemporary of Peter * Porter and Vincent * Buckley , he first came to literary...

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