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battle of Arsuf

1191. On 22 August 1191 Richard I led the armies of the Third Crusade out of Acre towards Jaffa, whence they would strike inland to Jerusalem. The army marched close to the ...

Arsuf, battle of

Arsuf, battle of (1191)   Reference library

S. D. Lloyd

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
142 words

..., battle of , 1191 . On 22 August 1191 Richard I led the armies of the Third Crusade out of Acre southwards towards Jaffa, whence they would strike inland to Jerusalem. Nothing better demonstrates Richard’s tactical sense and generalship than the march and the battle that followed. The army marched close to the sea-shore, its right flank protected by Richard’s fleet, which accompanied it and kept it supplied. Saladin’s forces harassed the crusaders, but could not break their close formation and Saladin realized that he would have to risk open battle if...

Arsuf, battle of

Arsuf, battle of (1191)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

..., battle of ( 1191 ). After the capture of Acre in July 1191 the Third Crusade needed a base at Jaffa for its attack on Jerusalem. Richard ‘the Lionheart’ of England had never commanded a great army in battle, but his military reputation ensured that he was the commander when the army left Acre on 22 August. He faced a march down the coast road in the face of a powerful army under Saladin . This necessitated a fighting march, familiar to the Latins in the Middle East but novel for a western commander. Richard revealed his military genius by...

Arsuf, Battle of

Arsuf, Battle of   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

..., Battle of The engagement at Arsuf between the forces of Richard I and Saladin on the Third Crusade is a classic example of a medieval army fighting on the march. The sizes of the armies are impossible to ascertain, especially in the fluctuating conditions of the Third Crusade: a rough estimate suggests that English and French forces embarked on the crusade with ten thousand men. Having taken the crucial Palestinian port of Acre in July 1191 , Richard led his army southward toward Jaffa on 22 August, 1191 . From here he planned to take the port of...

Arsuf, battle of

Arsuf, battle of   Quick reference

A Dictionary of British History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
97 words

..., battle of , 1191 . On 22 August 1191 Richard I led the armies of the Third Crusade out of Acre towards Jaffa, whence they would strike inland to Jerusalem. The army marched close to the sea‐shore, its right flank protected by Richard 's fleet. Saladin's forces harassed the crusaders, but could not break their close formation and Saladin realized that he would have to risk open battle. On 7 September, on the plain to the north of Arsuf, the two armies met. The day was won when the massed crusader cavalry charged and forced Saladin to...

battle of Arsuf

battle of Arsuf  

Reference type:
Overview Page
1191.On 22 August 1191 Richard I led the armies of the Third Crusade out of Acre towards Jaffa, whence they would strike inland to Jerusalem. The army marched close to the sea‐shore, its right flank ...
Saladin

Saladin  

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Overview Page
Subject:
History
(1137–93)Sultan of Egypt and Syria (1174–93). He invaded the Holy Land and reconquered Jerusalem from the Christians (1187), and, for a period, resisted the Third Crusade, the leaders of which ...
Richard I

Richard I  

(1157–99),king of England (1189–99). Richard has attracted legends in a way that bees are proverbially attracted to the honey‐pot. The process began in his own lifetime. Already, by 1199, the epithet ...
Saladin

Saladin (1138–93)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...months was partly a result of declining health and partly because of discontent within his army, although the two were related. The arrival of the Third Crusade at Acre in 1191 provided a trial of Saladin's skill, but despite his efforts the city surrendered in July. Under Richard ‘the Lionheart’ the crusaders marched south to establish Jaffa as a base from which to capture Jerusalem. Saladin attacked the march, but cautiously because he recognized that Richard was seeking to trap him into a battle; after a final spasm at Arsuf on 7 September his army...

Richard I Coeur de Lion

Richard I Coeur de Lion (1157–1199)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
509 words

... Saladin in the battle of Arsuf (both 1191 ), but disputes with Philip II of France and Duke Leopold of Austria undermined the effectiveness of the crusade itself and made dangerous enemies for him. King Philip withdrew from the coalition in 1191 , and took advantage of Richard's absence to invade Normandy three times. Captured by followers of Duke Leopold in Vienna in Dec 1192 , as he was travelling back to England, Richard was held to an enormous ransom of 150,000 marks (collected by the heaviest tax ever imposed in England) and forced...

Baybars I

Baybars I (1223–1277)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...Mongol raids and rumors of impending offensives were met with a forceful response, and there were frequent Mamluk raids across the border into Mongol-controlled territory, culminating in the campaign into Anatolia in 1276 , in which the local Mongol garrison was defeated at Elbistan. Vis-à-vis the Frankish crusaders, Baybars adopted a more aggressive policy than that of his Ayyubid predecessors, and from the mid-1260s he attacked Frankish forts and cities whenever there were breaks in the war with the Mongols. Thus Caesarea and Arsuf were taken in 1265 ,...

Baybars, I

Baybars, I (1233)   Reference library

allen j. fromherz

Dictionary of African Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
934 words

...and beachhead of Caesarea from the Franks. He also demolished Haifa and took Arsuf and Safed near Lake Tiberias. He took Jaffa south of modern Tel Aviv in 1268 . In a nearly final blow to Latin Christendom in the Levant, he took Antioch in the north. Until Baybars, Antioch had never left the control of the Christians. Baybars’ victory was a something of a death knell to the Latins. He even managed to capture the allegedly impenetrable Krak des Chevaliers in 1271 with the aid of innovative, heavy trebuchets and mangonels. The great chapel of the Hospitallers...

Discipline

Discipline   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...of command to maintain order properly. In 1137 the English king Stephen threatened Anjou. The Flemish mercenaries in his army quarreled with the Normans, and the outcome was that the expedition had to be abandoned. Because there was no clear single command, particular problems existed for crusading forces. The mixed Anglo-Flemish force that captured Lisbon on the Second Crusade was bound by a common oath to adhere to strict disciplinary articles, but these were disregarded by the Flemings, who pillaged the city without mercy. At the battle of Arsuf (...

Richard I

Richard I (1157–1199)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
854 words
Illustration(s):
1

...from French siege machines), and the glory of the victory went to Richard. His victories against the odds over Saladin, at Arsuf and Jaffa in 1192 , consolidated his legendary status in Europe. (His massacre of over twenty-five hundred Muslim prisoners at Acre did nothing to dent his reputation.) But Jerusalem, the ultimate objective, was not taken. Richard had the wisdom not to besiege it. He accepted that the problems of supplying and supporting the city could not realistically be resolved. Yet the capture of Cyprus, the Palestine coast, and key...

Richard I

Richard I (1157–99)   Reference library

S. D. Lloyd

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
840 words

...but rather the lord of the French-based Angevin empire which he inherited as a whole in 1189 ; by allowing for the international pull of the crusade and the duty to participate therein, an imperative acknowledged by contemporary western princes; and by examining carefully Richard’s political and diplomatic skills. His military reputation remains intact. Indeed, it has been enhanced. The inspired battlefield commander of tradition, and brilliant tactician—as evidenced, for example, by the march from Acre to Jaffa and the battle of Arsuf ( 1191 )—is...

Saladin

Saladin (1171–1193)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...at Tyre put Acre under siege, taking it in July 1191 just before the arrival of the Third Crusade under Richard I of England. Saladin was unable to stop this army’s advance south along the coast, and when he attempted a full-fledged battle at Arsuf, he was soundly beaten. When it became clear that Saladin was unable to defeat the Franks, while Richard was incapable of taking and holding Jerusalem, a truce was negotiated between them recognizing Frankish control of the coastal region, from Ashkelon to the north ( September 1192 ). The crusader entity...

Fortified Churches

Fortified Churches   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...Montfort, Arsuf, Safed, and other castles. Elsewhere churches might be contained within their own fortifications. The Premonstatensian Order constructed a cruciform plan church on the hilltop of Nebi Samwil, the traditional site of the Tomb of the Prophet Samuel, 4.5 miles (7.5 kilometers) northwest of Jerusalem. Around the church were the convent buildings and at a certain stage, probably circa 1170 , the church and monastery were substantially fortified with massive walls and a rock-cut ditch, in order to enable it to face the growing threat of attack by...

Crusader Archaeology

Crusader Archaeology   Reference library

Adrian J. Boas

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,763 words

...of Vadum Jacob in the Jordan River Valley, north of the Sea of Galilee. These excavations exposed parts of the castle that were undergoing construction at the time of its destruction by Saladin in 1179 , and consequently have provided remarkable evidence for understanding the methods of construction employed by the Franks. Other sites surveyed or excavated in recent years include the towns of Arsuf (Apollonia), Caymont (Yoqne'am) and Jaffa; the castles of Bethgibelin (Beth Guvrin), Blanchegarde (Tel as-Safi), Tour Rouge (al-Burj al-Akhmar), and Belmont...

archaeology: the Levant

archaeology: the Levant   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
2,109 words

...of Arsuf, Atlit, Belmont, Belvoir, *Krac des Chevaliers , Karak, Montfort, and Safed. In many of these castles defensive techniques, such as the use of machicolation, were adopted from Byzantine and Muslim fortifications. Ongoing excavations are uncovering a castle building site, the Templar castle of Vadum Jacob north of the Sea of Galilee, which was destroyed in 1179 while still under construction. An important architectural achievement was the construction of several hundred churches, the foremost being the new church of the *Holy Sepulchre , which...

Crusades, the

Crusades, the   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...notably at Arsuf , and St Louis tried to do the same, but his knights chafed at discipline, producing defeats such as that at Gaza in 1239 . The rise of Islamic unity obliged crusaders to think seriously about strategy. During the Third Crusade Richard came to believe that it would be better to strike at Egypt, the centre of Saladin's power, and thus restore the kingdom. This was the destination of the Fourth Crusade before its diversion to Constantinople, of the Fifth Crusade in 1218–21 , of St Louis in 1249 , and was considered by Theobald of Champagne in...

crusades

crusades   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
3,079 words
Illustration(s):
1

...The great battle came in 1187 at the Horns of *Hattin . There Saladin crushed the Christian forces, leaving the kingdom of Jerusalem nearly defenceless. On 2 October he rode triumphantly into Jerusalem itself. The fall of Jerusalem had a profound effect on all European Christians. It was a clear sign of God’s displeasure, an admonition to cleanse the soul of Christendom, and a call to take up the crusader’s cross. The call was answered by kings. William II of Sicily led a fleet of Normans to *Tripoli , saving it from capture. *Richard I of England and...

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