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battle of Alarcos

The battle of Alarcos (19 July 1195) between Alfonso VIII, king of Castile (1158–1214), and Abu Yusuf Yaʿqub, caliph of the Almohads (1184–1199), was the last major Almohad victory in the ...

Alarcos, battle of

Alarcos, battle of (19 July 1195)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
74 words

..., battle of ( 19 July 1195 ) The last great victory of the Muslims in Spain. By the Christian fortress of Alarcos on the Guadiana, the *Almohad forces of al- *Mansur crushingly defeated the army of Alfonso VIII of *Castile . See also reconquista . Damian J. Smith Actas de Alarcos 1195. Congreso Internacional Conmemorativo de VII centenario de la batalla de Alarcos , ed. R. Izquierdo (1996). A. Huici , Las grandes batallas de la Reconquista ...

Alarcos, Battle of

Alarcos, Battle of   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

..., Battle of The battle of Alarcos ( 19 July 1195 ) between Alfonso VIII , king of Castile ( 1158–1214 ), and Abu Yusuf Yaʿqub, caliph of the Almohads ( 1184–1199 ), was the last major Almohad victory in the Iberian Peninsula. Between 1158 and 1190 , the Christian rulers of the region had conquered a great swath of territory stretching from Lérida through Calatrava to the Algarve. They continued numerous raids against Muslim settlements in Al-Andalus during the 1180s and the start of the 1190s. During this period, the Almohads were preoccupied with...

battle of Alarcos

battle of Alarcos  

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The battle of Alarcos (19 July 1195) between Alfonso VIII, king of Castile (1158–1214), and Abu Yusuf Yaʿqub, caliph of the Almohads (1184–1199), was the last major Almohad victory in the Iberian ...
Abu Yusuf Ya ʿqub al- Mansur

Abu Yusuf Ya ʿqub al- Mansur  

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(c. 1160–1199), Almohad caliph.Abu Yusuf Yaʿqub al-Mansur (“the Victorious”) became Almohad caliph in 1184 after his father’s death. His ambition to expand his Andalusian kingdom was thwarted by the ...
Order of Calatrava

Order of Calatrava  

The Order of Calatrava was one of the first native Military orders founded in the Iberian peninsula, in the 12th century. Its origins go back to the recovery of a ...
Marinid

Marinid  

A Berber tribe of the Zanata grouping that supplanted the Almohads, ruling in Morocco from c.1250 to 1465.The Banu Marin were pastoralists from eastern Morocco who migrated northwards in ...
al-Andalus

al-Andalus  

Arabic name given to the geographical area of the Iberian Peninsula that came under Muslim control in the MA, from 711 to 1492. This period is often referred to as ...
Alfonso VIII of Castile

Alfonso VIII of Castile  

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(c. 1155–1214),king of Castile (1158–1214). Alfonso VIII inherited the throne of Castile at the age of two from his father, Sancho III (r. 1157–1158). Sancho’s premature death left his ...
Military Orders

Military Orders  

The European crusades against the Ottomans and the Spanish reconquista gave rise to military orders and to orders of ransom; these orders were in turn the antecedent institutions of the ...
Mansur, Abu Yusuf Ya ʿqub al-

Mansur, Abu Yusuf Ya ʿqub al- (1160–1199)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...ravaging the Tagus Valley west of Toledo, he signed a ten-year truce with Castile. Exhausted and ill, the caliph returned to Marrakech in 1198 , where he spent the rest of his days embellishing the city with magnificent construction projects. He died there in 1199 and was succeeded by his son Muhammad. [ See also Al-Andalus ; Alarcos, Battle of ; Alfonso VIII of Castile ; and Iberia , subentry on Narrative (1100–1300) .] Bibliography Chejne, Anwar G. Muslim Spain: Its History and Culture . Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1974. Kennedy,...

Alfonso VIII of Castile

Alfonso VIII of Castile (1155–1214)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...as part of a frontier defense system that also included the Toledan church and the native military religious Orders of Calatrava and Santiago. Throughout the 1180s and the 1190s, Alfonso used Toledo as his base to attack Almohad possessions to the south, extending his lands and intimidating his neighbors. His campaign against Seville in 1193 provoked the Almohad caliph, Abu Yusuf Yaʿqub al-Mansur (r. 1184–99 ) to cross the Straits of Gibraltar in command of a large army. Al-Mansur’s defeat of Alfonso at the battle of Alarcos in 1195 left the city of Toledo...

Marinid dynasty

Marinid dynasty   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
256 words

...dynasty A *Berber tribe of the Zanata grouping that supplanted the *Almohads , ruling in Morocco from c .1250 to 1465 . The Banu Marin were *pastoralists from eastern Morocco who migrated northwards in the 12th century. Some fought alongside Almohad forces in Spain at the battle of *Alarcos ( 1195 ). From 1213–14 the Marinids engaged in a protracted struggle against the Almohads from which they emerged victorious by 1275 . The Marinids did not display the religious fervour of their Almohad predecessors, but aspired to recreate their empire in...

Almohads

Almohads   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
518 words

... during the minority of Alfonso VIII , and while Abu Yaqub Yusuf ( 1163–84 ) turned Seville into an impressive capital of architectural splendour, advances in the north were negligible. The situation changed under Abu Yusuf Yaqub ( 1184–99 ), a brilliant general who consolidated Almohad power in North Africa, recaptured Alcacer do Sol and Silves from Portugal ( 1191 ), and inflicted a massive defeat on Castile at the battle of *Alarcos ( 1195 ). He took the name al- *Mansur . Now the Almohads reached to the height of their power, their armies...

Almohades

Almohades   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
601 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in 1203 . The Caliph Abū Yūsuf Yakūb's victory over the Christians at Alarcos in 1195 engendered a new awareness of danger; an appeal for a crusade launched by the archbishop of Toledo led to the formation of an armed coalition which routed the Almohades at the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212 . This defeat, aggravated by economic difficulties and intolerance against Jews and men of letters, was the signal for an interior crisis which accelerated the decline of Almohad power in the peninsula. Cordova fell into Christian hands in 1236...

Almohad

Almohad   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
1,276 words
Illustration(s):
1

...under one dynasty, although some keepers of pure Almohad dogma opposed Ibn Tumart's Mu῾minid successors. Abu Ya῾qub Yusuf I ( r. 1163–84 ) was killed in battle against the Christians near Santarém (Portugal), but his successor Abu Yusuf Ya῾qub ( r. 1184–99 ) routed the Castilians near Alarcos in 1195 and took the epithet al-Mansur (“the Victorious”). Muhammad al-Nasir ( r. 1199–1214 ) also fought the Christian kings of the peninsula, but he was decisively defeated at Las Navas de Tolosa ( 1212 ), and the decline of the Almohad empire began. After Abu...

Reconquista

Reconquista   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...both Almoravids and Almohads. The Spanish military orders, notably the Knights of Calatrava and Santiago, held the castles of the plains of New Castile against the Almohads in the crucial period between 1195 and 1212 . The climax of the Reconquista came at the end of the 12th century. In 1195 the Almohads decisively defeated the army of Alfonso VIII of Castile at Alarcos but they were unable to take advantage of the victory to retake Toledo or any of the cities which had been lost in the previous century. The Almohad caliph retired to North Africa and it...

Marinid Dynasty

Marinid Dynasty ((eleventh and twelfth centuries))   Reference library

stephen cory

Dictionary of African Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,180 words

... . The Moroccan Marinid dynasty of sultans in the eleventh and twelfth centuries was founded by Abu Muhammad ʿAbd al-Haqq I and his four sons: Uthman, Muhammad, Abu Yahya and Abu Yusuf Yaʿqub. During ʿAbd al-Haqq’s youth, the Marinids were a nomadic Zenata Berber tribe whose territory was located in the desert between Figuig and the Molouya basin in northeastern Morocco. In 1195 they allied with the ruling Almohads, participating with other tribal groups in the victorious Almohad battle against the Castilians at Alarcos, Spain. But Almohad fortunes in...

Al-Andalus

Al-Andalus   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...realm of Granada, which held out against intermittent Christian pressure until 1492 . [ See also Alarcos, Battle of ; Clavijo, Battle of ; Covadonga, Battle of ; Granada, Siege of ; Iberia , subentry on , Narrative (500–1100) ; Las Navas de Tolosa, Battle of ; Mansur, Abu ʿAmir al- ; Mansur, Abu Yusuf Ya ʿqub al- ; Pelayo ; Reconquest, Concept of ; and Zallaqah, Battle of .] Bibliography Kennedy, Hugh . Muslim Spain and Portugal: A Political History of al - Andalus . London: Longmans, 1996. O’Callaghan, Joseph F. A History of Medieval...

Orders, Military

Orders, Military   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
5,767 words
Illustration(s):
2

...to Aragon, Montesa’s lack of military importance was in part because of the subsiding Muslim military power in Spain at the time of its foundation. The military orders operating during the Iberian Middle Ages were essential cogs in a martial machine designed to wage unremitting war on Spanish Islam but were also extremely important in the growing conflict between the peninsula’s Christian states. [ See also Alarcos, Battle of ; Iberia , subentry on Narrative (1100–1300) ; Mansur, Abu Yusuf Ya ʿqub al- ; Reconquest, Concept of ; and Santiago .]...

Reconquista

Reconquista   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,636 words
Illustration(s):
2

...the Christian states and the arrival of a new Berber power in al-Andalus, the Almohads. During the second half of the twelfth century, the Almohads launched numerous attacks against Christian positions and inflicted a major defeat on Alfonso VIII of Castile (r. 1158–1214 ) at Alarcos in 1195 . However, the southern Christian frontier was bolstered by the foundation of a number of indigenous military orders—particularly those of Calatrava ( 1158 ), Santiago ( 1170 ), and Alcántara ( 1176 )—and by the expertise of the local town militias, whose raiding...

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